From Data to Information Literacy 必要とする情報

The executive and the knowledge worker have only one tool – information.

  Information is what holds an organization together and information is what makes individual knowledge workers effective. Enterprises and individuals will have to learn what information they need and how to get it. They will have to learn how to organize information as their key resource.
  In moving from data literacy to information literacy, you need to answer two principal questions: “What information does my enterprise need?” and “What information do I need?” To answer these questions you have to rethink:
  • What your job is, and what it should be
  • What your contribution is, or should be
  • What the fundamentals are of your organization
You will need three different types of information, each with its own concepts. The three primary types of information are: external information, internal information, and cross-organizational information. Your success and the success of your organization depend upon getting these answers right.

ACTION POINT: Answer these questions: “What is my job? What should be my contribution?” and “What are the fundamentals of the organization?” Then answer: “What information does my organization need?” and “What information do I need?”

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)

From Data to Information Literacy [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





必要とする情報 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー


2009.12.31 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Innovation for Maximum Opportunities イノベーションの能力

What is lacking to make effective what is already possible?

  The characteristic of the innovator is the ability to envisage as a system what to others are unrelated, separate elements. It is the successful attempt to find and to provide the smallest missing part that will convert already existing elements. To find areas where innovation would create maximum opportunities, one asks: “What is lacking to make effective what is already possible? What one small step would transform our economic results? What small change would alter the capacity of the whole of our resources?”
  To describe the need is not to satisfy it. But describing the need gives a specification for the desirable results. Whether they are likely to be obtained can be decided. Innovation is applicable to finding business potential and to making the future.

ACTION POINT: Ask yourself the three questions above.

Managing for Results

Innovation for Maximum Opportunities [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





イノベーションの能力 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.30 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Rules for the Family-Managed Business 同族企業のための4原則

The controlling word in “family-managed business” is not “family.”
It has to be “business.”

  The first rule is that family members do not work in the business unless they are at least as able as any nonfamily employee, and work at least as hard. The second rule is equally simple: No matter how many family members are in the company’s management, and how effective they are, one top job is always filled by an outsider who is not a member of the family. Typically, this is either the financial executive or the head of research – the two positions in which technical qualifications are most important. Rule three is that family-managed businesses, except perhaps for the very smallest ones, increasingly need to staff key positions with nonfamily professionals. The knowledge and expertise needed, whether in manufacturing or in marketing, in finance, in research, in human resource management, have become far too great to be satisfied by any but the most competent family member.
  Even the family-managed business that faithfully observes the preceding three rules tends to get into trouble – and often breaks up – over management succession. Then what the business needs and what the family wants tend to collide. There is only one solution: Entrust the succession decision to an outsider who is neither part of the family nor part of the business.

ACTION POINT: Get to know the top management of a family-owned business. Ask members how they plan to handle the problem of management succession “into the next generation.” Determine whether the plans are being driven by business issues or family issues, or by a combination of the two.

Managing in a Time of Great Change

Rules for the Family-Managed Business [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





同族企業のための4原則 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.29 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Family-Managed Business 同族企業

The majority of businesses everywhere are family controlled
and family managed.

  The majority businesses everywhere – including the United States and all other developed countries – are family controlled and family managed. And family management is by no means confined to small and medium-sized firms – families run some of the world’s largest companies. DuPont, controlled and managed by family members for 170 years (since its founding in 1802 until professional management took over in the mid-1970s), grew into the world’s largest chemical company. And two centuries after a still obscure coin dealer began to send out his sons to establish banks in Europe’s capitals, financial firms bearing the Rothschild name and run by Rothschilds are still among the world’s premier private bankers.
  Yet management books and management courses deal almost entirely with the publicly owned and professionally managed company – they rarely as much as mention the family-managed business. Of course, there is no difference whatever between professionally managed and family-managed businesses in respect to all functional work: research or marketing or accounting. But with respect to management, the family business requires its own and very different rules. These rules have to be stringently observed. Otherwise, the family-managed business will not survive, let alone prosper.

ACTION POINT: Less than 30 percent of family-owned companies survive into the second generation, while only 10 percent make it to the third generation, and just 4 percent to the fourth generation (Family Magazine, Web site, June 2004). Speculate as to why family businesses have such difficulty transitioning from generation to generation.

Managing in a Time of Great Change

The Family-Managed Business [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





同族企業 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.28 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Integrating the Economic and Social 経済と社会の調和

It is this absence of a functioning industrial society, able to integrate our industrial reality, that underlies the crises of our times.

  Man in his social and political existence must have a functioning society just as he must have air to breathe in his biological existence. However, the fact that man has to have a society does not necessarily mean that he has it. Nobody calls the mass of unorganized, panicky, stampeding humanity in a shipwreck a “society.” There is no society, though there are human beings in a group. Actually, the panic is directly due to the breakdown of a society; and the only way to overcome it is by restoring a society with social values, social discipline, social power, and social relationships.
  Social life cannot function without a society; but it is conceivable that it does not function at all. The evidence of the last twenty-five years of Western civilization hardly entitles us to say that our social life functioned so well as to make out a prima-facie case for the existence of a functioning society.

ACTION POINT: The passage above was written during World War II. It recognized that after centuries of industrial advance there had not been a similar advance in other institutions of society. Should the economic dimension of society ever take supremacy over the human, social, and political dimensions?

The Future of Industrial Man

Integrating the Economic and Social [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





経済と社会の調和 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.27 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Return of the Demons 魔物の再現

If freedom is incompatible with security, the masses will decide for security.

  The masses, then, have become prepared to abandon freedom if this promises to reestablish the rationality of the world. If freedom is incompatible with equality, they will give up freedom. If it is incompatible with security, they will decide for security. To be free or not has become a secondary question, since the freedom available does not help to banish the demons. Since the “free” society is the one that is threatened by the demons, it seems more than plausible to blame freedom and to expect delivery from despair through the abandonment of freedom.

ACTION POINT: The passage refers to the embrace by Europe of Nazism to escape the demons of war and depression. Why will society be more likely to embrace complete regimentation and totalitarianism in the absence of strong institutions?

The End of Economic Man

Return of the Demons [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





魔物の再現 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.26 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Unfashionable Kierkegaard 信仰

Faith enables man to die; but it also enables him to live.

  My work has indeed been totally in society. But I knew at once, in those far-back days of 1928, that my life would not and could not be totally in society, that it would have to have an existential dimension that transcends society. Still my work has been totally in society – except for this essay on Kierkegaard.
  Though Kierkegaard’s faith cannot overcome the awful loneliness, the isolation and dissonance of human existence, it can make it bearable by making it meaningful. The philosophy of the totalitarian creeds enables man to die. It is dangerous to underestimate the strength of such a philosophy; for, in a time of sorrow and suffering, of catastrophe and horror, it is a great thing to be able to die. Yet it is not enough. Kierkegaard’s faith, too, enables man to die; but it also enables him to live. Faith is the belief that in God the impossible is possible, that in Him time and eternity are one, that both life and death are meaningful. Faith is the knowledge that man is creature – not autonomous, not the master, not the end, not the center – and yet responsible and free. It is the acceptance of man’s essential loneliness, to be overcome by the certainty that God is always with man, even “unto the hour of our death.”

ACTION POINT: Salvation by society has always failed in the end. Find a purpose that sustains you both in society and as a human being.

The Ecological Vision

The Unfashionable Kierkegaard [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





信仰 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.25 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Human Existence in Tension 人間の実存

For Kierkegaard, human existence is possible only in tension –
in tension between man’s simultaneous life as an individual
in the spirit and as a citizen in society.

  Disintegration of the rational character of society and the rational relationship between individual and society is the most revolutionary trait of our times.
  Society must make it possible for man to die without despair if it wants him to be able to live exclusively in society. And it can do so in only one way: by making individual life meaningless. If you are nothing but a leaf on the tree of the race, a cell in the body of society, then your death is not really death; you had better call it a process of collective regeneration. But then of course your life is not a real life either; it is just a functional process within the life of the whole, devoid of any meaning except in terms of the whole. Thus an optimism that proclaims human existence in society leads straight to despair. And this despair can lead only to totalitarianism. Human existence is possible as existence not in despair, as existence not in tragedy; it is possible as existence in Faith. Faith is the belief that in God the impossible is possible, that in Him time and eternity are one, that both life and death are meaningful.

ACTION POINT: Reflect on the following: “Human existence is possible only in tension – in tension between man’s simultaneous life as an individual in the spirit and as a citizen in society.

The Ecological Vision
The End of Economic Man

Human Existence in Tension [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





人間の実存 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.24 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Spiritual Values 精神的な価値への回帰

Only compassion can save – the wordless knowledge of my own
responsibility for whatever is being done to the least of God’s children.
This is knowledge of the spirit.

  Society needs a return to spiritual values – not to offset the material but to make it fully productive. However remote its realization for the great mass of mankind, there is today the promise of material abundance or at least of material sufficiency. Mankind needs the return to spiritual values, for it needs compassion. It needs the deep experience that the Thou and the I are one, which all higher religions share. In an age of terror, of persecution, and of mass murder, such as ours, the hard shell of moral callousness may be necessary to survival. Without it we might yield to paralyzing despair. But moral numbness is also a terrible disease of mankind and soul, and a terrible danger. It abets, even if it does not condone, cruelty and persecution. We have learned that the ethical humanitarianism of the nineteenth century cannot prevent man from becoming beast.
  The individual needs the return to spiritual values, for the can survive in the present human situation only by reaffirming that man is not just a biological and physiological being but also a spiritual being, that is, creature, and existing for the purpose of his Creator and subject to Him. Only thus can the individual know that the threat of instant physical annihilation of the species does not invalidate his own existence, its meaning, and its responsibility.

ACTION POINT: In the presence of the threat of instant annihilation, how can we maintain meaning and responsibility without spiritual values?

Landmarks of Tomorrow

Spiritual Values [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





精神的な価値への回帰 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.23 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Limits of Social Responsibility 社会的責任の限界

“It is not enough for business to do well; it must also do good.”
But in order to “do good,” a business must first “do well.”

  Whenever a business has disregarded the limitation of economic performance and has assumed social responsibilities that it could not support economically, it has soon gotten into trouble.
  Union Carbide was not socially responsible when it put its plant into Vienna, West Virginia, to alleviate unemployment there. It was, in fact, irresponsible. The plant was marginal to begin with. The process was obsolescent. At best the plant could barely keep its head above water. And this, inevitably, meant a plant unable to take on social responsibility, even for its own impacts. Because the plant was uneconomical to begin with, Union Carbide resisted so long all demands to clean it up. This particular demand could not have been foreseen in the late 1940s, when concern with jobs far outweighed any concern for the environment. But demands of some kind can always be expected. To do something out of social responsibility that is economically irrational and untenable is therefore never responsible. It is sentimental. The result is always greater damage.

ACTION POINT: Explain why this is true: In order for a business to “do good,” it must first “do well,” and indeed very well.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Limits of Social Responsibility [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





社会的責任の限界 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.22 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Whistle-Blower 内部告発の二面性

Whistle-blowing is ethically ambiguous.

  Today’s ethics of organization debate pays great attention to the duty to be a “whistle-blower” and to the protection of the whistle-blower against retaliation or suppression by his boss or by his organization. This sounds high-minded. Surely, the subordinate has a right, if not indeed a duty, to bring to public attention and remedial action his superior’s misdeeds, let alone violation of the law on the part a superior or of his employing organization. But in the context of the ethics of interdependence, whistle-blowing is ethically quite ambiguous.
  To be sure, there are misdeeds of the superior or of the employing organization that so grossly violate propriety and laws that the subordinate (or the friend, or the child, or even the wife) cannot remain silent. This is, after all, what the word “felony” implies; one becomes a partner to a felony and criminally liable by not reporting, and thus compounding it. But otherwise? It is not primarily that to encourage whistle-blowing corrodes that bond of trust that ties the superior to the subordinate. Encouraging the whistle-blower must make the subordinate lose trust in the superior’s willingness and ability to protect people.

ACTION POINT: The Sarbanes-Oxley law encourages whistle-blowing from insiders in the case of corporate corruption. How will this legislation affect the bond between superior and subordinates?

The Ecological Vision

The Whistle-Blower [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





内部告発の二面性 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.21 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Temptation to Do Good 善への誘惑

Public-service institutions are out to maximize rather than to optimize.

  The most important obstacle to innovation is that public-service institutions exist, after all, to “do good.” This means that they tend to see their mission as a moral absolute rather than as economic and subject to a cost/benefit calculus. Economics always seeks a different allocation of the same resources to obtain a higher yield. In the public-service institution, there is no such thing as a higher yield. If one is “doing good,” then there is no “better.” Indeed, failure to attain objectives in the quest for a “good” only means that efforts need to be redoubled.
  “Our mission will not be completed,” asserts the head of the Crusade Against Hunger, “as long as there is one child on the earth going to bed hungry.” If he were to say, “Our mission will be completed if the largest possible number of children that can be reached through existing distribution channels get enough to eat not to be stunted,” he would be booted out of office. But if the goal is maximization, it can never be attained. Indeed, the closer one comes toward attaining one’s objective, the more efforts are called for. For, once optimization has been reached, additional costs go up exponentially while additional results fall off exponentially. The closer a public-service institution comes to attaining its objectives, therefore, the more frustrated it will be and the harder it will work on what it is already doing.

ACTION POINT: Prison Fellowship seeks to reduce the rate at which released prisoners are incarcerated again because of new crimes. Why would it be unwise for Prison Fellowship to try to eliminate so-called “recidivism?”

Innovation and Entrepreneurship

The Temptation to Do Good [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





善への誘惑 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.20 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Rules for Successful Alliances 提携における5つの原則

Alliances tend to get into serious trouble when they succeed.

  While their failure rate in early years is no higher than that of new ventures, alliances tend to get into serious trouble – sometimes fatal – when they succeed. Often when an alliance does well, it becomes apparent that the goals objectives of the partners are not compatible.
  The problems can be anticipated and largely prevented by following five rules.
  1. Before tha alliance is completed, all parties must think through their objectives and the objectives of the “child.”
  2. Equally important is advance agreement on how the joint enterprise should be run.
  3. Next, there has to be careful thinking about who will manage the alliance.
  4. Each partner needs to make provisions in its own structure for the relationship to the joint enterprise and the other partners. The best way, especially in a large organization, is to entrust all such “dangerous liaisons” to one senior executive.
  5. Finally, there has to be prior agreement on how to resolve disagreements. The best way is to agree, in advance of any dispute, on an arbitrator whom all sides know and respect and whose verdict will be accepted as final by all of them.

ACTION POINT: Alliances have been portrayed as “dangerous liaisons.” What is do dangerous about entering into an alliance?

Managing for the Future

Rules for Successful Alliances [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





提携における5つの原則 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.19 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Alliances for Progress 海外進出形態の変化

The practice of management will have to base itself on the new assumption
that its scope is not legal but the entire economic chain.

  Business growth and business expansion in different parts of the world will increasingly not be based on mergers and acquisitions or even on starting new, wholly owned businesses there. They will increasingly have to be based on alliances, partnerships, joint ventures, and all kinds of relations with organizations located in other political jurisdictions. They will increasingly have to be based on structures that are economic units and not legal – and therefore not political – units.
  There are many reasons growth henceforth will be based on partnerships of all sorts rather than on outright ownership and command-and- control. One of the more compelling will be the need to operate in both a global world economy and a splintered world polity. A partnership is by no means a perfect solution to this problem. But at least the conflict between economic reality and legal reality is greatly lessened if the economic unit is not also a legal unit, but is a partnership, an alliance, a joint venture, that is a relationship in which political and legal appearance can be separated from economic reality.

ACTION POINT: A very successful U.S. company constructed a number of plants in South America. A less prominent U.S. company decided to form alliances with existing companies in South America. The first company failed miserably, whereas the second succeeded. What insights are provided by this reading as to why the second was successful and the first a failure?

Management Challenges for the 21st Century

Alliances for Progress [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





海外進出形態の変化 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.18 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Promote Across Lines 企業買収における昇進

Politically, the people in the acquired company become “us”
determined to defend their business against “them.”

  Even if all the rules have been faithfully observed, many acquisitions end up failing or at least take forever before they live up to their expectations. Legally the acquired business is now part of the acquiring company. But politically, the people in the acquired company become “us” determined to defend their business against “them,” the people in the acquiring company. And the people in the acquiring company similarly think and act in terms of “us” against “them.” Sometimes it takes a whole generation before these invisible but impenetrable barriers come down. It is therefore imperative that, within the first few months after the acquisition, a number of people on both sides are promoted to a better job across the lines. This way both sides see the acquisition as a personal opportunity.
  The goal is to convince managers in both companies that the merger offers them personal opportunities. This principle apples not only to executives at or near the top, but also to they younger executives and professionals, the people on whose dedication and efforts any business primarily depends. If they see themselves blocked as a result o an acquisition, they will “vote with their feet,” and as a rule they can find new jobs even more easily than displaced top executives.

ACTION POINT: Make sure you promote people in the wake of an acquisition.

The Frontiers of Management
The Successful Acquisition (Corpedia Online Program)

Promote Across Lines [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





企業買収における昇進 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.17 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Provide New Top Management 買収された側のトップ

The Business these people sell is their “child.”

  Within a year or so, the acquiring company must be able to provide top management for the company it acquires. The buyers has to be prepared to lose the top incumbents in companies that are bought. Top people are used to being bosses; they don’t want to be “division managers.” If they were owners or part-owners, the merger has made them so wealthy they don’t have to stay if they don’t enjoy it. And if they are professional managers, without an ownership stake, they usually find another job easily enough. Then to recruit new top management is a gamble that rarely comes off.
  This applies particularly to a CEO who originally built the company that he or she sold. Very often this CEO has actually initiated the acquisition. He or she typically expects the acquirer to make the changes that he or she has been reluctant to make – for instance, get rid of and old employee who is a close friend and ha served the company faithfully as it grew but has been long outgrown by the job. But still, the business these people sell is their “child.” And the moment it is owned by someone else, they become protective and see their job as defending the “child” against one of those unfeeling “foreigners” who now own it.

ACTION POINT: Investigate a recent acquisition by your company or another company. What happened to the top management of the acquired company?

The Frontiers of Management
The Successful Acquisition (Corpedia Online Program)

Provide New Top Management [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





買収された側のトップ [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.16 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Respect for the Business and Its Values 企業買収における体質の一致

The acquisition must be a “temperamental fit.”

  No acquisition works unless the people in the acquiring company have respect for the product, the markets, and the customers of the company they acquire. Though many large pharmaceutical companies have acquired cosmetic firms, none has made a great success of it. Pharmacologists and biochemists are “serious” people concerned with health and disease. Lipsticks and lipstick users are frivolous to them. By the same token, few of the big television networks and other entertainment companies have made a go of the book publisher they bought. Books are not “media,” and neither book buyers nor authors – a book publisher’s two customers – bear any resemblance to what the Nielsen rating means by “audience.” Sooner or later, usually sooner, a business requires a decision. People who do not respect or feel comfortable with the business, its products, and its users invariably make the wrong decision.

ACTION POINT: Take an acquisition with which you are familiar. Was there a temperamental fit between the tow companies? How did the companies respect, or fail to respect, each other’s business?

The Frontiers of Management
The Successful Acquisition (Corpedia Online Program)

Respect for the Business and Its Values [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





企業買収における体質の一致 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.15 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Common Core of Unity 事業の核としての共通性

There has to be a “common culture” ore at least a “culture affinity.”

  Successful diversification by acquisition, like all successful diversification, requires a common core of unity. The two businesses must have in common either markets or technology, though occasionally a comparable production process has also provided sufficient unity of experience and expertise, as well as a common language, to bring companies together. Without such a core of unity, diversification, especially by acquisition, never works; financial ties alone are insufficient.
  One example is a big French company that has been built by acquiring producers of all kinds of luxury goods: champagne and high-fashion designers, very expensive watches and perfumes and handmade shoes. It looks like the worst kind of conglomerate. The products have seemingly nothing in common. But all of them are being bought by customers for the same reason, which, of course, is not utility or price. Instead, people buy them because they are “status.” What all the acquisitions of this successful acquirer have in common is their customers’ value Champagne is being sold quite differently from high fashion. But it is being bought for much the same reason.

ACTION POINT: In any acquisition, make sure there is a common culture or a cultural affinity between the two entities.

The Frontiers of Management
The Successful Acquisition (Corpedia Online Program)

Common Core of Unity [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





事業の核としての共通性 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.14 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

What the Acquire Contributes 企業買収の成否

The successful acquisition is based on what the acquiring
company contributes to the acquisition.

  An acquisition will succeed only if the acquiring company thinks through what it can contribute to the business it is buying, not what the acquired company will contribute to the acquirer, no matter how attractive the expected “synergy” may look. What the acquiring company contributes may vary. It may be management, technology, or strength in distribution. This contribution has to be something besides money. Money by itself is never enough.
  The acquisition of Citibank by Travelers was successful because the acquiring company, Travelers, thought through and planned what it could contribute to Citibank that would make a major difference. Citibank had established itself successfully in practically every country of the world and had, at the same time, built a transnational management. But in its products and services Citibank was still primarily a traditional bank, and its distributive and management capacity way exceeded the products and services commercial banking can produce and deliver. And Travelers had a good many of these products and services. What it saw itself as being able to contribute was greatly to increase the volume of business the superb Citibank worldwide distribution system and management could sell, and at little or no extra cost.

ACTION POINT: Before making and acquisition, focus on contribution, not synergy.

The Frontiers of Management
The Successful Acquisition (Corpedia Online Program)

What the Acquire Contributes [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





企業買収の成否 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.13 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Business Not Financial Strategy 財務よりも事業

“There ain’t no bargains,” and “You get at most what you pay for.”

  Successful acquisitions are based upon business plans, not financial analyses. Acquisition targets must fit the business strategies of the acquiring company; otherwise, the acquisition is likely to fail. The worst acquisition record of the last decades of the twentieth century was that of Peter Grace, the longtime CEO of W. R. Grace. He was a brilliant man. He set out in the 1950s to build a world-class multinational through financially-based acquisitions. He assembled the ablest group of financial analysts and had them scout all over the world for industries and companies with a low price/earnings ratio. He bought these companies at what he thought were bargain prices. The financial analysis of each Grace purchase was impeccable. But there was absolutely no business strategy.
  By contrast, one of the most successful examples of company growth based on acquisitions was the one that underlined the stellar performance of General Electric during the tenure of Jack Welch as CEO from 1981 to 2001. The largest single cause of the company’s growth in sales and earning – and the resulting rise in the company’s market value – was the acquisition-based expansion of GE Capital. Of course, not all of them panned out. In fact, there was one major failure, the acquisition of a brokerage firm. But otherwise the GE Capital acquisitions seem to have worked out magnificently. Underlying practically all of them was a sound business strategy.

ACTION POINT: Think through an acquisition made by your organization. What was the basis of the acquisition: strategic of financial? How has it worked out?

The Successful Acquisition (Corpedia Online Program)

Business Not Financial Strategy [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





財務よりも事業 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.12 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Six Rules of Successful Acquisitions 企業買収6つの原則

Acquisitions should be successful, but few are, in fact.

  Acquisitions should be successful, but few are, in fact. The reason for this nonperformance is always the same: disregard of the well-known and well-tested rules for successful acquisitions.
  The six rules of successful acquisitions are:
  1. The successful acquisition must be based on business strategy, not financial strategy.
  2. The successful acquisition must be based on what the acquirer contributes to the acquisition.
  3. The two entities must share a common core of unity, such as markets and marketing, or technology, or core competencies.
  4. The acquirer must respect the business, products, and customers of the acquired company, as well as its values.
  5. The acquirer must be prepared to provide top management to the acquired business within a fairly short period, a year at most.
  6. The successful acquisition must rapidly create visible opportunities for advancement for both the people in the acquiring business and people in the acquired business.

ACTION POINT: Evaluate three acquisition prospects against these six rules. Which ones would you recommend that your organization pursue?

The Frontiers of Management
The Successful Acquisition (Corpedia Online Program)

Six Rules of Successful Acquisitions [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





企業買収6つの原則 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.11 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Resource-Allocation Decisions 投資と人事

The allocation of capital and people determine whether the organization
will do well or poorly.

  The allocation of capital and performing people converts into action all that management knows about its business – they determine whether the organization will do well or poorly. An organization should allocate human resources as purposefully and as thoughtfully as it allocates capital. To understand a capital investment, a company has to look at four measures: return on investment, payback period, cash flow, and discounted present value. Each of these four measures tells the executive something different about a prospective capital investment. Each looks at the investment through a different lens. Decisions makers should not evaluate capital investments in isolation, but as part of a cluster of projects. They should then select the cluster that shows the best ratio between opportunity and risk. The results of capital spending should be assessed against expectations in the postaudit procedure. Information gathered from the procedure can then be used to help make decisions about future investments.
  The decisions to hire, to fire, and to promote are among the most important decisions of the executive. They are more difficult than the capital allocation decision. An organization needs to have a systematic process for making people decisions that is just as rigorous as the one it has for making decisions about capital. Executives need to evaluate people against expectations.

ACTION POINT: Review your capital allocation decisions of the past year. Are they meeting your expectations? Review your hiring and promotion decisions of the past year. Are they meeting your expectations? Make changes to your resource allocation procedures based on feedback analysis.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)

Resource-Allocation Decisions [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





投資と人事 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.10 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Benchmarking for Competitiveness ベンチマーキング

Benchmarking assumes that being at least as good as the leader
is a prerequisite to being competitive.

  EVA (economic value added analysis) is a good start to assess the competitiveness of an enterprise in the global marketplace, but to it we must add benchmarking. Benchmarking is a tool that helps a firm tell whether or not it is globally competitive. Benchmarking assumes, correctly, that what one company does another company can always do as well. “Best performers” are often found in identical services or functions inside an organization, in competitor organizations, but also in organizations outside the industry. Together, EVA and benchmarking provide the diagnostic tools needed to measure total-factor productivity and to manage it. They are examples of the new tools executives should understand to measure and manage what goes on inside the enterprise. Combined, they are the best measures we have so far available.

ACTION POINT: Instigate a benchmarking study by gathering data on a product, service, or process from a comparable organization, even from one outside your industry. Set performance measures to ensure that you are competitive with the best performers.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)

Benchmarking for Competitiveness [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





ベンチマーキング [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.09 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

EVA as a Productivity Measure EVAによる生産性の測定

Until a business returns a profit that is greater than its cost of capital,
it does not create wealth, it destroys it.

  Measuring total-factor productivity is one of the major challenges confronting the executive in the age of knowledge work. For manual work, measuring quantity is usually sufficient. In knowledge work, we have to manage both quantity and quality, and we do not know yet how to do that. We must try to assess total-factor productivity using the common denominator of revenues and expenses. By measuring the value added over all costs, including the cost of capital, EVA (economic value added analysis) measures, in effect, the productivity of all factors of production [or the true economic costs produced by all resources used].
  Never mind that a business pays taxes as if it had earned a profit. It does not cover its full costs until reported profits exceed its cost of capital. Until a business returns a profit that is greater than its cost of capital, it operates at a loss. And this is why EVA is growing in popularity. It does not, by itself, tell us why a certain product or a certain service does not add value or what to do about it. It does show which products, services, operations, ore activities have unusually high productivity and add unusually high value. Then we should ask ourselves, “What can we learn from these successes?”

ACTION POINT: Calculate the “economic value added” for your organization or for a product or service that you provide.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)

EVA as a Productivity Measure [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





EVAによる生産性の測定 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.08 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Obstacle to Economic-Chain Costing 経済連鎖によるコスト管理

Switching to economic-chain costing requires uniform accounting
systems along the entire chain.

  The real cost is the cost of an entire process, in which even the biggest company is just one link. Companies are therefore beginning to shift costing from including only what goes on inside their own organization to costing the entire economic process, the economic chain. There are obstacles in implementing economic-chain costing. For many businesses it will be painful to switch to economic-chain costing. Doing so requires uniform or at least compatible accounting systems of all businesses along the entire chain. Yet each one does its accounting in its own way, and each is convinced that its system is the only possible one. Moreover, economic-chain costing requires information sharing across companies; yet even within the same company, people tend to resist information sharing. Whatever the obstacles, economic-chain costing is going to be done. Otherwise, even the most efficient company will suffer from an increasing cost disadvantage.

ACTION POINT: Identify the obstacles to implementing economic-chain costing, overcome them, and implement economic-chain costing in your organization.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)

Obstacle to Economic-Chain Costing [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





経済連鎖によるコスト管理 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.07 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Activity Costing ABC原価計算のメリット

Activity-based costing is a totally different way of thinking.

  Traditional costing techniques are now rapidly being replaced by activity-based cost accounting. Traditional costing builds cost from the bottom up – labor, material, and overhead. It concentrates primarily on manufacturing-related costs, the so-called inventoriable costs. Activity-based costing starts from the end and asks, “Which activities and related costs are used in carrying out the complete value chain of activities associated with the cost object?” Activity-based costing includes the cost of quality and service.
  By designing quality into products and services during the design stage, design costs may increase, but warranty and service costs are likely to decrease, thus overcoming any cost increase experienced at the front-end of the chain. And unlike traditional costing, it includes all costs of producing a product or service.

ACTION POINT: Activity-based costing is a totally different way of thinking especially for accountants whose financial reports do not require activity costs. Tackle this issue with your accounting staff.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)

Activity Costing [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





ABC原価計算のメリット [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.06 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Price-Led Costing 価格主導型コスト管理

The problem is not with technology. It is with mentality.

  Traditionally, Western companies have started with costs, put a desired profit margin on top, and arrived at a price. This is cost-led pricing. In price-led costing, the price the customer is willing to pay determines allowable costs, beginning with design costs and ending with service costs. Marketing provides information on the price the customer is willing to pay for the value the product or service provides.
  A cross-functional team starts its analysis of costs by taking this price as a given. The team then subtracts the profit required to compensate the enterprise for capital investment and risk, and arrives at an allowable cost for a product service. Then it proceeds to make the tradeoffs between the utility provided by a product and allowable costs. Under price-led costing, the entire economic framework focuses upon creating value for the customer and meeting cost targets while earning the necessary rate of return on investment.

ACTION POINT: Examine the cost-and-pricing procedures used in your organization. Are they cost-led pricing or price-led costing? Focus on creating value for your customer and implement price-led costing.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)

Price-Led Costing [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





価格主導型コスト管理 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.05 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Information on Cost and Value 価値とコストの情報

We cannot achieve results until we have information on cost and value.

  Basic structural information is focused upon the value that is created for customers and the resources used to do so. The concepts and tools of accounting are now in the throes of its most fundamental change. The new accounting tools are not just different views of recording transactions but represent different concepts of what business is and what results are. So even the executive far removed from any work in accounting, such as a research manager in a development laboratory, needs to understand the basic theory and concepts represented by these changes in accounting. These new concepts and tools include: activity-based costing, price-led costing, economic-chain costing, economic value added, and benchmarking.
  Activity-based costing reports all the costs of a product or service until the customer actually buys the product, and provides the foundation for integrating cost and value into one analysis.

ACTION POINT: Pick up a book on Activity-Based Costing and become proficient with the strategic, conceptual, and procedural issues of this accounting concept.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)

Information on Cost and Value [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





価値とコストの情報 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.04 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The New Entrepreneur 新起業家時代

History moves in a spiral; one returns to the preceding position,
but on a higher level, and by a corkscrew-like path.

  We are again entering an era in which emphasis will be on entrepreneurship. However, it will not be an entrepreneurship of a century ago, that is, the ability of a single man to organize a business he himself could run, control, embrace. It will rather be the ability to create and direct an organization for the new. We need men and women who can build a new structure of entrepreneurship on the managerial foundations laid these last eighty years. History, it has often been observed, moves in a spiral; one returns to the preceding position, or to the preceding problem, but on a higher level, and by a corkscrew-like path. In this fashion we are going to return to entrepreneurship on a path that led out from a lower level, that of the single entrepreneur, to the manager, and now back, though upward, to entrepreneurship again. The businessperson will have to acquire a number of new abilities, all of them entrepreneurial in nature, but all of them to be exercised in and through a managerial organization.

ACTION POINT: Establish an entrepreneurial culture I your organization.

The Age of Discontinuity

The New Entrepreneur [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





新起業家時代 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.03 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Turbulent Times Ahead 乱気流時代の到来

In turbulent times, the first task of management is to make sure
of the institution’s capacity to survive a blow.

  In turbulent times, the first task of management is to make sure of the institution’s capacity for survival, to make sure of its structural strengths, of its capacity to survive a blow, to adapt to sudden change, and to avail itself of new opportunities. Turbulence, by definition, is irregular, nonlinear, erratic. But its underlying causes can be analyzed, predicted, managed.
  What management should – and can – manage is the single most important new reality underlying a great deal of the turbulence around: the sea-change in population structure and population dynamics, and especially the shift in population structure and population dynamics in the developed countries of the West and Japan. These shifts are already changing the modes of economic integration throughout the world. They are likely to lead to a new “transnational confederation” based on production sharing and market control, replacing in many areas the old “multinational corporation” based on financial control. They are creating new consumer markets and realigning existing old consumer markets. They are drastically changing the labor force to the point where there will only be “labor forces,” each with different expectations and different characteristics. They will force us to abandon altogether the concept of “fixed retirement age.” And they will create a new demand on management – as well as a new opportunity – to make organized plans for redundancy.

ACTION POINT: Define the underlying causes of turbulence affecting your enterprise today. What steps should you take now to protect your organization and to allow it to thrive in the midst of turbulence?

Managing in Turbulent Times (Hardcover)

Turbulent Times Ahead [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





乱気流時代の到来 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.12.02 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

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【スエルテ - SUERTE】

Author:【スエルテ - SUERTE】
ピーター・ドラッカー(P.F.ドラッカー、Peter Ferdinand Drucker)の鋭い洞察力および示唆に富んだ文章は我々を魅了します。
『The Daily Drucker(ドラッカー 365の金言)』を元に毎日解説していきます。