Control Middle Management ミドルの肥大化

Start middle-management weight control.

  Now is the time to start middle-management weight control. One means is attrition. As a job becomes vacant through retirement, death, or resignation, don’t automatically fill it. Leave jobs open for six or eight months and see what happens; unless there is an overwhelming clamor for filling the job, then abolish it. The few companies that have tried this report that about half the “vacancies” disappeared after six months. A second way to reduce middle-management bulk is to substitute job-enlargement for promotion. The one and only way to provide satisfaction and achievement for young managers and executives – and for the even younger people working under them – is to make jobs bigger, more challenging, more demanding, and more autonomous, while increasingly using lateral transfers to different assignments, rather than promotions, as a reward for outstanding performance.
  Forty years ago we built into the performance review of managerial people the question, “Are they ready for promotion?” Now we need to replace the question with “Are they ready for a bigger, more demanding challenge and for the addition of new responsibilities to their existing job?”

ACTION POINT: Create a flat organization. Use information processing – its structure, its control, and its direction – to ensure that your organization is agile and effective.

The Frontiers of Management

Control Middle Management [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





ミドルの肥大化 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー


2009.11.30 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Role of Public Relations PR部門の役割

“Public Relations” has acquired a connotation of ballyhoo,
propaganda, and whitewashing.

  To the general public, “public relations” means publicity – essentially an extension of advertising from advertising a product to advertising its producer. But, the emphasis should be on acquainting the broad public with the problems of the enterprise rather than on convincing it of the company’s virtues and achievements. This leads to the realization that to reach the public with its problems, the enterprise must understand the public’s problems first.
  Every major decision of a great corporation affects the public somehow, as workers, consumers, citizens; hence the public will react consciously or subconsciously to every move the company makes. On this reaction depends, however, the effectiveness of the company’s decision – simply another way of saying that any corporation lives in society. Hence the effectiveness of the executive’s decision depends not only on his understanding the problems of his business but also on his understanding the public attitude toward his problems. Hence the program of public relations is to give both central-office and divisional executives a knowledge of public attitudes and beliefs, and an understanding of the reasons behind them.

ACTION POINT: Understand public reaction to company decisions. Understand public attitudes toward the firm, and evaluate these attitudes. Recognize that an enterprise exists at the will of the public.

Concept of the Corporation

Role of Public Relations [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





PR部門の役割 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.29 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Rules for Staff People スタッフの原則

Unless staff people have proved themselves in operations,
they will lack credibility among operating people
and will be dismissed as “theoreticians.”

  Rules for staff people are just as important as rules for staff work. Don’t ever put anyone into a staff job unless he or she has successfully held a number of operating jobs, preferably in more than one functional area. For if staff people lack operating experience, they will be arrogant about operations, which always look so simple to the “planner.” But today, in government even more than in business, we put young people fresh out of business or law school into fairly senior staff jobs as analysts or planners or staff counsel. Their arrogance and their rejection by the operating organization practically guarantee that they will be totally unproductive.
  With rare exceptions, staff work should not be a person’s “career” but only be a part of his or her career. After five to seven years on a staff job, people ought to go back into operating work and not return to a staff assignment for five years or so. Otherwise, they will soon become behind-the-scene wire pullers, “gray eminences,” “kingmakers,” “brilliant mischief-makers.”

ACTION POINT: Rotate staff people in and out of operating work.

The Frontiers of Management

Rules for Staff People [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





スタッフの原則 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.28 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Rules for Staff Work スタッフ部門の貢献

Staff work is not done to advance knowledge; its only justification
is the improvement of the performance of operating people
and of the entire organization.

  First, staff should concentrate on tasks of major importance that will continue for many years. A task of major importance that will not last forever – for example, the reorganization of a company’s management – is better handled as a one-time assignment. Staff work should be limited to a few tasks of high priority. Proliferation of staff services deprives them of effectiveness. Worse, it destroys the effectiveness of the people who produce results, the operating people. Unless the number of staff tasks is closely controlled, staff will gobble up more of operating people’s scarcest resource: time.
  Effective staff work requires specific goals and objectives, clear targets, and deadlines. “We expect to cut absenteeism in half within three years” or “Two year from now we expect to understand the segmentation of our markets sufficiently to reduce the number of product lines by at least one third.” Objectives like these make for productive staff work. Vague goals such as “getting a handle on employee behavior” or “a study of customer motivation” do not. Every three years or so, it is important to sit down with every staff unit and task, “What have you contributed these last three years that makes a real difference to this company?”

ACTION POINT: Keep support staff and few. Establish specific goals and deadlines for all staff work. Make sure goals are linked directly to one or more organizational goals.

The Frontiers of Management

Rules for Staff Work [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





スタッフ部門の貢献 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.27 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Fundamentals of Communications コミュニケーションの基本

To improve communications, work not on the utter but the recipient.

  It is the recipient who communicates. Unless there is someone who hears, there is no communication. There is only noise. One can perceive only what one is capable of perceiving. One can communicate only in the recipients’ language or in their terms. And the terms have to be experience-based. We perceive, as a rule, what we expect to perceive. We see largely what we expect to see, and we hear largely what we expect to hear. The unexpected is usually not received at all. Communication always makes demands. It always demands that the recipient become somebody, do something, believe something. It always appeals to motivation. If it goes against her aspirations, her values, her motivations, it is likely not to be received at all or, at best, to be resisted.
  Where communication is perception, information is logic. As such, information is purely formal and has no meaning. Information is always encoded. To be received, let alone to be used, the code must be known and understood by the recipient. This requires prior agreement, that is, some communication.

ACTION POINT: Take steps to improve communications by asking recipients to initiate an information exchange. Formulate questions such as, “What objectives do you believe are appropriate for you area of responsibility next quarter?”

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Fundamentals of Communications [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





コミュニケーションの基本 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.26 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Building Blocks of Organization 組織の構造単位

Contribution determines ranking and placement.

  “What activities belong together and what activities belong apart?” A searching analysis is needed that groups activities by the kind of contribution they make. There are four major groups of activities, if distinguished by their contribution. First, result-producing activities – that is, activities that produce measurable results that can be related, directly or indirectly, to the results and performance of the entire enterprise. Second, support activities that, while needed and even essential, do not by themselves produce results but have results only through the use made of their “output” by other components within the business. Third, activities that have no direct or indirect relationship to the results of the business, activities that are truly ancillary. They are hygiene and housekeeping activities. Finally, is the top-management activity. Among the result-producing activities, there are some that directly bring in revenues (or in service institutions, directly produce “patient care” or “learning”). Here belong innovating activities, selling and all the work needed to do a systematic and organized selling job. Here also belongs the treasury function, that is, the supply and management of money in the business.
  Key activities should never be subordinated to nonkey activities. Revenue-producing activities should never be subordinated to nonrevenue-producing activities. And support activities should never be mixed with revenue-producing and result-contributory activities.

ACTION POINT: Give result-producing activities high visibility in your organization. Make sure support activities are subordinated to result-producing activities. Consider delegating employee welfare activities to employee teams.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Building Blocks of Organization [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





組織の構造単位 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.25 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Simulated Decentralization 擬似分権制

The main rule is to look upon simulated decentralization
as a last resort only.

  Whenever a unit can be set up as a business, no design principle can match federal decentralization. We have learned, however, that a great many large companies cannot be divided into genuine businesses. Yet they have clearly outgrown the limits of size and complexity of the functional or of the team structure. These are the companies that are increasingly turning to “simulated decentralization” as the answer to their organization problem. Simulated decentralization forms structural units that are not businesses but which are still set up as if they were businesses, with maximum possible autonomy, with their own management, and with at least a “simulation” of profit-and-loss responsibility. They buy from and sell to each other using “transfer prices” determined internally rather than by an outside market. Or their “profits” are arrived at by internal allocation of costs to which then, often, a “standard fee,” such as 20 percent of costs, is added.

ACTION POINT: Produce internal competition by using “micro” profit-centers when feasible. Attribute revenue to each unit and match revenue with its cost.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Simulated Decentralization [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





擬似分権制 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.24 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Reservation of Authority トップマネジメントの役割

There must be a kind of “supremacy clause” reserving to central
management the decisions that affect the business as a whole
and its long-range future welfare.

  Top management in a decentralized company must think through carefully what decisions it reserves for itself. For there are decisions that have to do with the entire company, its integrity, and its future. These decisions can made only by somebody who sees the whole and is responsible for the whole. Specifically, there must be three reserved areas if the business is to remain a whole rather than splinter into fragments. Top management, and top management alone, can make the decision on what technologies, markets, and products to go into, what businesses to start and what businesses to abandon, and also what the basic values, beliefs, and principles of the company are. Second, top management must reserve to itself the control of the allocation of the key resource of capital. Both the supply of capital and its investment are top-management responsibilities that cannot be turned over to the autonomous units of a federal organization.
  Third, the other key resource is people. The people in a federally organized company, and especially managers and key professionals, are a resource of the entire company rather than of any one unit. The company’s policies with respect to people and decisions on key appointments in the decentralized autonomous businesses are top-management decisions – though of course, autonomous business managers need to take an active part in them.

ACTION POINT: Reserve certain key decisions for top management, especially those having to do with the mission, values, and direction of the organization; the allocation of capital; and the selection of key people.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Reservation of Authority [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





トップマネジメントの役割 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.23 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Federal Decentralization: Requirements 分権制成立の条件

As a minimum the unit must contribute a profit to the company
rather than merely contribute to the profit of the company.

  Federal decentralization has stringent requirements. Federal decentralization is applicable only where a company can truly be organized into a number of genuine “businesses.” This is its basic limitation. As a minimum the units must contribute a profit to the company. And it must be a genuine profit determined by the objective judgment of the marketplace.
  Federal decentralization will work only if the top-management job is clearly defined and thought through. Federalization, if properly applied, makes top management capable of doing its own job precisely because it does not have to worry about operations, but can concentrate on direction, strategy, objectives, and key decisions for the future. The federal principle demands great responsibility from the operating units, the autonomous businesses. They are given the maximum of autonomy; and this requires that they assume the maximum of responsibility. Federal decentralization requires centralized controls and common measurements. Both the managers of the autonomous businesses and top management must know what is expected of each business, what is meant by “performance,” and what developments are important. To be able to give autonomy one must have confidence. And this requires controls that make opinions unnecessary. A federal unit of a company is autonomous, but it is not independent and should not be. Its autonomy is a means toward better performance for the entire company.

ACTION POINT: Ensure that executives of your autonomous units have maximum autonomy and maximum responsibility. Implement this by establishing a system of controls that makes performance or the lack of performance very evident.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Federal Decentralization: Requirements [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





分権制成立の条件 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.22 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Federal Decentralization: Strengths 分権制の強み

The greatest strength of the federal principle is that it alone
of all known principles of organization prepares and tests people
for top-management responsibility at an early stage.

  In “federal decentralization” a company is organized into a number of autonomous businesses. Each unit has responsibility for its own performance, its own results, and its own contribution to the total company. Each unit has its own management which, in effect, runs its own “autonomous business.”
  In a federally organized structure, each manager is close enough to business performance and business results to focus on them. The federal principle therefore enables us to divide large and complex organizations into a number of businesses that are small and simple enough that managers know what they are doing and can direct themselves toward the performance of the whole instead of becoming prisoners of their own work, effort, and skill. Because management by objectives and self-control become effective, the number of people or units under one manager is no longer limited by the span of control; it is limited only by the much wider span of managerial responsibility. The greatest strength of the federal principle is, however, with respect to manager development. This by itself makes it the principle to be used in preference to any other.

ACTION POINT: Give people maximum responsibility by organizing according to the federal principle. Become an organization that develops numerous people.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Federal Decentralization: Strengths [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





分権制の強み [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.21 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Federal Principle 分権制

Federalism relieves top management from operating duties
and sets it free to devote itself to its proper functions.

  What the enterprise needs is a principle that gives both the center and the parts genuine managerial functions and powers. This principle is federalism, in which the whole of the enterprise is conceived as made up of autonomous units. The federal enterprise and all its units are in the same business. The same economic factors determine the future of the whole as well as of all units; the same basic decisions have to be made for all of them; the same kind and type of executive is needed. Hence the whole requires a unified management in charge of the basic functions: the decision what business the enterprise is in, the organization of the human resources, and the selection, training, and testing of future leaders.
  At the same time, each unit is a business by itself. It produces its own products for a distinct market. Each unit must, therefore, have wide autonomy within limits set by the general decisions of the management of the whole. Each unit has to have its own management. The local management will be primarily an operating management; it will be concerned mainly with the present and immediate future rather than with basic policy. But within a limited scope it will have also to discharge real top-management functions.

ACTION POINT: Make maximum use of the federal principle.

The New Society

The Federal Principle [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





分権制 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.20 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Characteristics of Organizations 組織の目的

Organization is a tool. As with any tools, the more specialized its given task,
the greater its performance capacity.

  Organizations are special-purpose institutions. They are effective because they concentrate on one task. If you were to go to the American Lung Association and say, “Ninety percent of all adult Americans suffer from ingrown toenails; we need your expertise in research, health, education, and prevention to stamp out this dreadful scourge,” you’d get the answer: “We are interested only in what lies between the hips and the shoulders.” That explains why the American Lung Association or the American Heart Association or any of the other organizations in the health field get results.
  Society, community, family, have to deal with whatever problem arises. To do so in an organization is “diversification.” And in an organization, diversification means splintering. It destroys the performance capacity of any organization – whether business, labor union, school, hospital, community service, or church. Because the organization is composed of specialists, each with his or her own narrow knowledge area, its mission must be crystal clear. The organization must be single-minded, otherwise its members become confused. They will follow their specialty rather than applying it to the common task. They will each define “results” in terms of that specialty, imposing their own values on the organization. Only a clear, focused, and common mission can hold the organization together and enable it to produce results.

ACTION POINT: Make sure your organization has a clear focus, a mission that everyone can identify with, and that it concentrates on producing results.

Post-Capitalist Society

Characteristics of Organizations [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





組織の目的 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.19 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Hierarchy and Equality 階層と平等

One hears a great deal today about “the end of hierarchy.”
That is blatant nonsense.

  To attack industrial society, as would the sentimental equalitarian, because it is based on subordination instead of on formal equality is a misunderstanding of the nature of both industry and society. Like every other institution that coordinates human efforts to a social end, the corporation must be organized on hierarchical lines. But, also, everybody from the boss to the sweeper must be seen as equally necessary to the success of the common enterprise. At the same time, the large corporation must offer equal opportunities for advancement. This is simply the traditional demand for justice, a consequence of the Christian concept of human dignity.
  The demand for equal opportunities is not, as is often mistakenly assumed, a demand for absolute equality of rewards. On the contrary, equal opportunities automatically assume an inequality of rewards. For the very concept of justice implies rewards graduated according to unequal performance and unequal responsibility.

ACTION POINT: Does your organization value the contribution of the boss and the sweeper, or just the boss?

Concept of the Corporation
Management Challenges for the 21st Century
A Functioning Society

Hierarchy and Equality [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





階層と平等 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.18 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Limits of Quantification 定量化の限界

Quantification for most of the phenomena in a social ecology
is misleading or at best useless.

  The most important reason why I am not a quantifier is that in social affairs, events that matter cannot be quantified. For example, Henry Ford’s ignorance in 1900 or 1903 of the prevailing economic wisdom that the way to maximize profit was to be a monopolist – that is, to keep production low and prices high – led him to assume that the way to make money was to keep prices low and production high. This, the invention of “mass production,” totally changed industrial economics. It would have been impossible, however, to quantify the impact even as late as 1918 or 1920, years after Ford’s success had made him the richest industrialist in the United States, and probably in the world. He had revolutionized industrial production, the automobile industry, and the economy in general, and had, above all, completely changed our perception of industry.
  The unique event that changes the universe is an event “at the margin.” By the time it becomes statistically significant, it is no longer “future”; it is, indeed, no longer even “present.” It is already “past.”

ACTION POINT: Identify a unique event with an impact that is quantifiable now, but is likely to transform your organization in the next decade. Be out in front and take advantage of the opportunities it will afford.

The Ecological Vision

Limits of Quantification [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





定量化の限界 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.17 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Right Organization 組織構造の適切さ

The only things that evolve by themselves in an organization
are disorder, friction, malperformance.

  The pioneers of management a century ago were right: organizational structure is needed. The modern enterprise needs organization. But the pioneers were wrong in their assumption that there is – or should be – one right organization. Instead of searching for the right organization, management needs to learn to look for, to develop, to test, the organization that fits the task.
  There are some “principles” of organization. One is that organization has to be transparent. People have to know and have to understand the organization structure they are supposed to work in. Someone in the organization must have the authority to make the final decision in a given area. It also is a sound principle that authority be commensurate with responsibility. It is a sound principle that any one person in an organization should have only one “master.” These principles are not too different from the ones that inform an architect’s work. They do not tell him what kind of building to build. They tell him what the restraints are. And this is pretty much what the various principles of organization structure do.

ACTION POINT: Reflect on whether your organization is transparent, if decision-making authority is clear, whether authority is commensurate with responsibility, and whether each person has only one master.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

The Right Organization [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





組織構造の適切さ [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.16 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Management Letter マネジメント・レター

Managing managers requires special efforts not only to
establish common direction, but to eliminate misdirection.

  Setting objectives is so important that some of the most effective managers I know have each of their subordinates write a “manager’s letter” twice a year. In this letter to his superior, each manager first defines the objectives of his superior’s job and of his own job as he sees them. He then sets down the performance standards that he believes are being applied to him. Next, he lists the things he must do to attain these goals – and the things within his own unit he considers the major obstacles. He lists the things his superior and the company do that help him and the things that hamper him. Finally, he outlines what he proposes to do during the next year to reach his goals. If his superior accepts this statement, the “manager’s letter” becomes the charter under which the manager operates.
  Mutual understanding can never be attained by “communications down,” can never be created by talking. It can result only from “communications up.” It requires both the superior’s willingness to listen and a tool especially designed to make lower managers heard.

ACTION POINT: Write a management letter to your superior twice a year.

The Practice of Management
Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

The Management Letter [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





マネジメント・レター [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.15 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

How to Use Objectives 目標の使用法

Objectives are not fate; they are direction.

  If objectives are only good intentions, they are worthless. They must degenerate into work. And work is always specific, always has – or should have – clear, unambiguous, measurable results, a deadline, and a specific assignment of accountability. But objectives that become a straitjacket do harm. Objectives are always based on expectations. And expectations are, at best, informed guesses. The world does not stand still.
  The proper way to use objectives is the way an airline uses schedules and flight plans. The schedule provides for the 9 AM flight from Los Angeles to get to Boston by 5 PM. But if there is a blizzard in Boston that day, the plane will land in Pittsburgh instead and wait out the storm. The flight plan provides for flying at thirty thousand feet and for flying over Denver and Chicago. But if the pilot encounters turbulence or strong headwinds, he will ask flight control for permission to go up another five thousand feet and to take the Minneapolis – Montreal route. Yet no flight is ever operated without a schedule and flight plan. Any change is immediately fed back to produce a new schedule and flight plan. Objectives are not fate; they are direction. They are not commands; they are commitments. They do not determine the future; they are means to mobilize the resources and energies of the business for the making of the future.

ACTION POINT: Set and use objectives the way an airline uses schedules and flight plans.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

How to Use Objectives [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





目標の使用法 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.14 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Management by Objectives and Self-Control 目標管理の狙い

“Control” is an ambiguous word.

  The greatest advantage of management by objectives is perhaps that it makes it possible for a manager to control his own performance. Self-control means stronger motivation: a desire to do the best rather than just enough to get by. It means higher performance goals and broader vision. Even if management by objectives were not necessary to give the enterprise the unity of direction and effort of a management team, it would be necessary to make possible management by self-control.
  “Control” means the ability to direct oneself and one’s work. It can also mean domination of one person by another. Objectives are the basis of “control” in the first sense; but they must never become the basis of “control” in the second, for this would defeat their purpose. Indeed, one of the major contributions of management by objectives is that it enables us to substitute management by self-control for management by domination. It should be clearly understood what behavior and methods the company bars and unethical, unprofessional, or unsound. But within these limits every manager must be free to decide what he or she has to do.

ACTION POINT: Management by objectives has enjoyed widespread use, but not self-control. Why is this?

The Practice of Management

Management by Objectives and Self-Control [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





目標管理の狙い [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.13 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Work of the Manager マネジメントの5つの仕事

Managers can improve their performance by improving
their performance of these constituent activities.

  There are five basic operations in the work of the manager.
  • Managers, in the first place, set objectives. They determine what the objectives should be. They determine what the goals in each area of objectives should be. They decided what has to be done to reach these objectives. They make the objectives effective by communicating them to the people whose performance is needed to attain them.
  • Second, managers organize. They analyze the activities, decisions, and relations needed. They classify the work. They divide it into manageable activities and further divide the activities into manageable jobs. They group these units and jobs into an organization structure. They select people for the management of these units and for the jobs to be done.
  • Next, managers motivate and communicate. They make a team out of the people who are responsible for various jobs.
  • The fourth basic element in the work of the manager is measurement. The manager establishes yardsticks – and few factors are as important to the performance of the organization and of every person in it.
  • Finally, managers develop people, including themselves.

ACTION POINT: Manage by setting objectives and organizing, motivating, communicating with, measuring, and developing people, including yourself.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

The Work of the Manager [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





マネジメントの5つの仕事 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.12 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Divestment 事業売却のコツ

In looking for a husband for your daughter, says an old proverb, don’t ask:
“Who’ll make the best husband for her?” Ask instead:
“For which kind of man would she make a good wife?”

  Divestment is a “marketing” rather than a “selling” problem. The question is not: “What do we want to sell and for how much?” It is : “For whom is this venture ‘value’ and under what conditions?” The salient point is finding the potential buyer for whom what is misfit to the seller is a perfect fit, the buyer to whom the venture to be sold offers the best opportunity or solves the worst problem. This is then also the buyer who will pay the most.
  A major printing company decided that a mass-circulation magazine it owned was at best a partial fit and should be sold. The magazine had been bought originally to hold its printing contract. They asked, “What is value to magazine publishing company?” “If it is a growing magazine company,” they answered, “its greatest need is cash. For a growing magazine requires heavy cash investments in building circulation for several years. “How can we supply this need of the potential buyer to our own advantage?” was the next question. And the answer was, “By giving him ninety days rather than the customary thirty days to pay his print and paper bill to our printing plants.” The printing company then rapidly found a publishing group that filled their requirements.

ACTION POINT: Identify a “partial fit” business of yours. For whom is this misfit a perfect fit?

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Divestment [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





事業売却のコツ [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.11 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

How to Abandon 体系的廃棄の具体化

Abandonment must be practiced systematically.

  “To abandon what?” and “To abandon how?” have to be practiced systematically. Otherwise they will always be “postponed,” for they are never “popular” policies.
  In one fairly big company offering outsourcing services in most developed countries, the first Monday of every month is set aside for an abandonment meeting at every management level from top management to the supervisors in each area. Each of these sessions examines one part of the business – one of the services one Monday, one of the regions in which the company does business a month later, the way this or that service is organized the Monday morning of the third month, and so on. Within the year, the company this way examines itself completely, including its personnel policies, for instance. In the course of a year, three to four major decisions are likely to be made on the “what” of the company’s services and perhaps twice as many decisions to change the “how.” But also each year, three to five ideas for new things to do come out of these sessions. These decisions to change anything – whether to abandon something, whether to abandon the way something is being done, or whether to do something new – are reported each month to all members of management. And twice a year all management levels report on what has actually happened as a result of their sessions, what action has been taken and with what results.

ACTION POINT: Implement a process of systematic abandonment, such as setting aside the first Monday of every month for an abandonment meeting.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century

How to Abandon [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





体系的廃棄の具体化 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.10 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Long-Range Planning 短期と長期

The future will not just happen if one wishes hard enough.

  The future requires decisions – now. It imposes risk – now. It requires action – now. It demands allocation of resources, and above all, of human resources – now. It requires work – now.
  The idea of long-range planning – and much of its reality – rests on a number of misunderstanding. The long range is largely made by short-run decisions. Unless the long range is built into, and based on, short-range plans and decisions, the most elaborate long-range plan will be an exercise in futility. And conversely, unless the short-range plans – that is, the decisions on the here and now – are integrated into one unified plan of action, they will be expedient, guess, and misdirection. “Short range” and “long range” are not determined by any given time span. A decision is not short range because it takes only a few months to carry it out. What matters is the time span over which it is effective. Long-range planning should prevent managers from uncritically extending present trends into the future, from assuming that today’s products, services, markets, and technologies will be the products, services, markets, and technologies of tomorrow, and, above all, from dedicating their resources and energies to the defense of yesterday. Everything that is “planned” becomes immediate work and commitment.

ACTION POINT: Focus your long-range planning on decisions based on such questions as these: “Which of our present businesses should we abandon? Which should we play down? Which should we push and supply new resources to?”

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Long-Range Planning [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





短期と長期 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.09 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Strategic Planning 不確実性時代のプランニング

Strategic planning deals with the futurity of present decisions.

  Traditional planning asks: “What is most likely to happen?” Planning for uncertainty asks, instead: “What has already happened that will create the future?”
  Strategic planning is not a box of tricks, a bundle of techniques. It is analytical thinking and commitment of resources to action. It is the continuous process of making present entrepreneurial decisions systematically and with the greatest knowledge of their futurity, organizing systematically the efforts needed to carry out these decisions, and measuring the results of these decisions against the expectations through organized, systematic feedback. The question that faces the strategic decision-maker is not what his organization should do tomorrow. It is: “What do we have to do today to be ready for an uncertain tomorrow?” The question is not what will happen in the future. It is: “What futurity do we have to build into our present thinking and doing, what time spans do we have to consider, and how do we use this information to make a rational decision now?”

ACTION POINT: Develop a strategic planning process that focuses present decisions on the future welfare of your organization. Establish responsibilities for the implementation and monitoring of these strategic decisions. Perform audits of the results of each strategic decision in order to improve your effectiveness in making strategic decisions.

Managing in a Time of Great Change
Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Strategic Planning [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





不確実性時代のプランニング [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.08 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Failed Strategy 戦略が失敗したとき

Most of the people who persist in the wilderness leave nothing behind
but bleached bones.

  When a strategy or an action doesn’t seem to be working, the rule is, “If at first you don’t succeed, try once more. Then do something else.” The first time around, a new strategy very often doesn’t work. Then one must sit down and ask what has been learned. Maybe the service isn’t quite right. Try to improve it, to change it, and make another major effort. Maybe, though I am reluctant to encourage this, you might make a third effort. After that, go to work where the results are. There is only so much time and so many resources, and there is so much work to be done.
  There are exceptions. You can see some great achievements where people labored in the wilderness for twenty-five years. But these examples are very rare. Most of the people who persist in the wilderness leave nothing behind but bleached bones. There are also true believers who are dedicated to a cause where success, failure, and results are irrelevant, and we need such people. They are our conscience. But very few of them achieve. Maybe their rewards are in Heaven. But that’s not sure either. “There is no joy in Heaven over empty churches,” Saint Augustine wrote sixteen hundred years ago to one of his monks who busily built churches all over the desert. So, if you have no results, try a second time. Then look at it carefully and move on to something else.

ACTION POINT: If at first you don’t succeed, sit down and ask what you have learned. Improve your approach and try once more. Maybe make a third effort. Then do something else.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization

The Failed Strategy [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





戦略が失敗したとき [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.07 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Winning Strategies 戦略の役割

“One prays for miracles but workers for results,” Saint Augustine said.

  There is an old saying that good intentions don’t move mountains, bulldozers do. In nonprofit management, the mission and the plan – if that is all there is – are the good intentions. Strategies are the bulldozers. They convert what you want to do into accomplishment. They are particularly important in nonprofit organizations. Strategies lead you to work for results. They convert what you want to do into accomplishment. They also tell you what you need to have by way of resources and people to get the results.
  I was once opposed to the term “strategy.” I thought it smacked too much of the military. But I have slowly become a convert. That is because in many businesses and nonprofit organizations, planning is an intellectual exercise. You put it in a nicely bound volume on your shelf and leave it there. Everybody feels virtuous; we have done the planning. But until it becomes actual work, you have done nothing. Strategies, on the other hand, are action-focused. So I have reluctantly accepted the word because it’s clear that strategies are not something you hope for; strategies are something you work for.

ACTION POINT: Have a strategy in place.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization

Winning Strategies [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





戦略の役割 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.06 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Future Budget もう1つの予算

The budget for the future remains stable throughout good times and bad.

  In most enterprises – and again not just in business – there is only one budget, and it is adjusted to the business cycle. In good times expenditures are increased across the board. In bad times expenditures are cut across the board. This, however, practically guarantees missing out on the future. The change leader’s first budget is an operating budget that shows operating and capital outlays to maintain the present business. That budget should always be approached with the question: “What is the minimum we need to spend to keep operations going?” And in poor times it should, indeed, be adjusted downward.
  And then the change leader has a second, separate budget for the future. The future budget should be approached with the question: “What is the maximum funding these new activities require to produce optimal results.” That amount should be maintained in good times or bad – unless times are so catastrophic that maintaining expenditures threatens the survival of the enterprise.

ACTION POINT: Prepare a “development budget” that contains funds to exploit opportunities. Make sure the budget provides stability of funding in good times and bad.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century

The Future Budget [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





もう1つの予算 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.05 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Test of Intelligence Information 不意打ち

The ultimate test of an information system is that there are no surprises.

  The ultimate test of an information system is the there are no surprises. Before events become significant, executives have already adjusted to them, analyzed them, understood them, and taken appropriate action. One example is the very few American financial institutions that, in the late 1990s, were not surprised by the collapse of mainland Asia. They had thought what “information” means in respect to Asian economies and Asian currencies. They had gradually eliminated all the information they got from within their own subsidiaries and affiliates in these countries – these, they had begun to realize, were just “data.” Instead, they had begun to organize their information about such things as the ratio between short-term borrowing and the country’s balance of payments and information about funds available to service foreign short-term debt. Long before these ratios turned so unfavorable as to make a panic in mainland Asia inevitable, these executives had realized that it was coming. They realized that they had to decide whether to pull out of these countries, or to stay for the very long term. They had, in other words, realized what economic data are meaningful in respect to emerging countries, had organized them, had analyzed them, and had interpreted them. They had turned the data into information – and had decided what action to take long before that action became necessary.

ACTION POINT: Identify key variables in your environment. Make sure you have intelligence information about each of these variables to minimize surprises.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century

The Test of Intelligence Information [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





不意打ち [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.04 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Gathering and Using Intelligence 組織が必要とする情報

Information has to be organized to test a company’s assumptions
about its theory of its business.

  Information has to be organized to challenge company’s strategy. It has to test the company’s assumptions about its theory of its business. This includes testing the company’s assumptions about its environment – society and its structure, the market, the customer, and technology. And information on the environment, where the major threats and opportunities are likely to arise, has become increasingly urgent. Then there are assumptions about the specific mission of the company. Third, there are assumptions about an organization’s core competencies needed to accomplish its mission. Software may be designed to provide this information tailored to a specific group such as hospitals, universities, or casualty insurance companies.
  Companies can produce some of the information they need themselves, such as information about customers and noncustomers. But even big companies will have to hire outside experts to help them acquire and organize the information they need. The sources are simply too diverse. Most of what the enterprise needs to know about the environment is available only from outside sources – from all kinds of data banks and data services, from journals in many languages, from trade associations, from government publications, from World Bank reports, from scientific papers, or from specialized studies.

ACTION POINT: Do you have the information you need to challenge your company’s strategy and assumptions?

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)

Gathering and Using Intelligence [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





組織が必要とする情報 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.03 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Business Intelligence Systems 外部についての情報システム

Erroneous assumptions can be disastrous.

  A business intelligence system is a systematic process of organizing information about the business environment. It involves gathering and organizing outside information and then integrating this information into decisions. Organized information about the environment needs to include information about actual and potential competitors worldwide. However, not all outside information is available. But, even when information is available, many businesses are oblivious to it. Half of new technologies that transform an industry come from outside the industry, and information about these new technologies is available. Molecular biology and genetic engineering were not developed by the giant pharmaceutical industry, yet they are transforming the entire health-care industry. Information on these developments is available and companies in the pharmaceutical industry must keep abreast of these developments.

ACTION POINT: Identify three technologies that are transforming your business that have come from outside of your industry. Set up an intelligence system to gather information about these and other emerging technologies and capitalize on them before your competitors do.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)

Business Intelligence Systems [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





外部についての情報システム [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.02 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Organizational Agility 集中力が鍵

Fleas can jump many times their own height, but not elephants.

  Large organizations cannot be versatile. A large organization is effective through its mass rather than through its agility. Mass enables the organization to put to work a great many more kinds of knowledge and skill than could possibly be combined in any one person or small group. But mass is also a limitation. An organization, no matter what it would like to do, can only do a small number of tasks at any one time. This is not something that better organization or “effective communications” can cure. The law of organization is concentration.
  Yet modern organization must be capable of change. Indeed it must be capable of initiating change, that is innovation. It must be able to move scarce and expensive resources of knowledge from areas of low productivity and nonresults to opportunities for achievement and contribution. This, however, requires that ability to stop doing what wastes resources.

ACTION POINT: What is the small number of tasks that your large organization is doing? Are they the right ones? If not, discontinue them and focus on others.

The Age of Discontinuity

Organizational Agility [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





集中力が鍵 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.11.01 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

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【スエルテ - SUERTE】

Author:【スエルテ - SUERTE】
ピーター・ドラッカー(P.F.ドラッカー、Peter Ferdinand Drucker)の鋭い洞察力および示唆に富んだ文章は我々を魅了します。
『The Daily Drucker(ドラッカー 365の金言)』を元に毎日解説していきます。