Effective Nonprofit Boards of Directors NPOの理事会

Membership on this board is not power; it is responsibility.

  To be effective, a nonprofit needs a strong board, but a board that does the board’s work. The board not only helps think through the institution’s mission, it is the guardian of that mission and makes sure the organization lives up to its basic mission. The board has the responsibility of making sure the nonprofit has competent management – and the right management. The board’s role is to appraise the performance of the organization. The board is also the premier fund-raising organ of a nonprofit organization.
  Over the door to the nonprofit’s boardroom there should be an inscription in big letters that says: MEMBERSHIP ON THIS BOARD IS NOT POWER; IT IS RESPONSIBILITY. Board membership means responsibility not just to the organization but to the board itself, to, the staff, and to the institution’s mission. A common problem is the badly split board. Every time an issue comes up, the board members fight out their basic policy rift. This much more likely in nonprofit institutions precisely because the mission is, and should be, so important. The role of the board then becomes both more important and more controversial. At that point, teamwork between the chairperson and chief executive officer becomes absolutely vital.

ACTION POINT: Have you served on one or more nonprofit organization boards? Have these boards helped fulfill the nonprofit’s mission or frustrated the mission?

Managing the Non-Profit Organization

Effective Nonprofit Boards of Directors [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





NPOの理事会 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー


2009.10.31 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Fund Development in the Nonprofit NPOの資金源開拓

Fund-raising is going around with a begging bowl.

  The nonprofit institution needs a fund-development strategy. The source of its money is probably the greatest single difference between the nonprofit sector and business and government. A business raises money by selling to its customers; the government taxes. The nonprofit institution has to raise money from donors. It raises money, or at least a large portion of it – from people who want to participate in the cause but who are not beneficiaries.
  A nonprofit institution that becomes a prisoner of money-raising is in serious trouble and in a serious identity crisis. The purpose of a strategy for raising money is precisely to enable the nonprofit institution to carry out its mission without subordinating that mission to fund-raising. This is why nonprofit people have now changed the term they use from “fund raising” to “fund development.” Fund development is creating a constituency that supports the organization because it deserves it. It means developing a membership that participates through giving.

ACTION POINT: A nonprofit institution that becomes a prisoner of money-raising has a serious identify crisis. Have you seen examples of this in your associations with nonprofits?

Managing the Non-Profit Organization

Fund Development in the Nonprofit [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





NPOの資金源開拓 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.30 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Converting Good Intentions into Results よき意図と成果

“It’s much easier to sell the Brooklyn Bridge than to give it away.”

  The nonprofit institution is not merely delivering a service. It wants the end user to be not a user but a doer. It uses a service to bring about a change in human beings. It attempts to become a part the recipient rather than merely a supplier.
  Nonprofit institutions used to think they didn’t need marketing. But, as a famous old saying by a great nineteenth-century con man has it, “It’s much easier to sell the Brooklyn Bridge than to give it away.” Nobody trusts you if you offer something for free. You need to market even the most beneficial service. But the marketing you do in the nonprofit sector is quite different from selling. It’s more a matter of looking at your service from the recipient’s point of view. You have to know what to sell, to whom to sell, and when to sell.

ACTION POINT: The mission of the Salvation Army is to make citizens out of the rejected. How does that service look from the recipient’s point of view? How should the Salvation Army market that service?

Managing the Non-Profit Organization

Converting Good Intentions into Results [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





よき意図と成果 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.29 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Corporation as a Political Institution 政治的存在としての組織

In dealing with constituencies outside the primary task,
managers have to think politically.

  When it comes to the performance of the primary task of an institution – whether economic goods and services in the case of the business, health care in that of a hospital, or scholarship and higher education in that of the university – the rule is to optimize. There, managers have to base their decisions on what is right rather than on what is acceptable. But in dealing with the constituencies outside and beyond this narrow definition of the primary task, managers have to think politically – in terms of the minimum needed to placate and appease and keep quiet constituent groups that otherwise might use their power of veto. Managers cannot be politicians. They cannot confine themselves to “satisficing” decisions. But they also cannot be concerned only with optimization in the central area of performance of their institution. They have to balance both approaches in one continuous decision-making progress. The corporation is an economic institution. But it is also a political institution.
  Managers have to think through what the constituencies are that can effectively veto and block decisions, and what their minimum expectations and needs should be.

ACTION POINT: List the constituents of your enterprise. Next, list how you plan to optimize the needs of your customers and meet at least the minimum expectations of each of the other constituents.

A Functioning Society

The Corporation as a Political Institution [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





政治的存在としての組織 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.28 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Political Integration of Knowledge Workers 知識労働者の政治性

Knowledge workers are, to coin a term, “uniclass.”

  The new majority, the “knowledge worker,” does not fit any interest-group definition. Knowledge workers are neither farmers not labor nor business; they are employees of organizations. Yet they are not “proletarians” and do not feel “exploited” as a class. Collectively, they are “capitalists” through their pension funds. Many of them are themselves bosses and have “subordinates.” Yet they also have a boss themselves. They are not middle-class, either. They are, to coin a term, “uniclass” – though some of them make more money than others. It makes absolutely no difference to their social position whether they work for a business, a hospital, or a university. Knowledge workers who move from accounting work in a business to accounting work in a hospital are not changing social or economic position. They are changing a job.
  The status implies no specific economic or social culture. So far there is no political concept, no political integration that fits them.

ACTION POINT: Knowledge workers are capitalists in both the old and new senses. Do you see any political party addressing the interests of these new capitalists?

The New Realities

Political Integration of Knowledge Workers [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





知識労働者の政治性 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.27 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Needed: Strong Labor Unions 労働組合の役割

To become again a dynamic, effective, legitimate organ,
the labor union will have to transform itself.

  The true strength of the labor movement in developed countries has been moral: its claim to be the political conscience of a modern secular society.
  Management – no matter who “owns” and no matter whether the institution is a business, a government agency, or a hospital – has to have considerable power and authority – power and authority grounded in the needs of the enterprise and based on competence. And power, as the drafters of the American Constitution knew, needs to be limited by countervailing power. Modern society, a society of organizations each requiring strong management, needs an organ such as the labor union. In the last few years events have amply proved this. But to become again a dynamic, effective, legitimate organ, the labor union will have to transform itself drastically. Otherwise the union will become irrelevant.

ACTION POINT: Reflect on constructive ways labor unions can check the power of businesses, governments, and hospitals.

The Frontiers of Management

Needed: Strong Labor Unions [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





労働組合の役割 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.26 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Government in the International Sphere 国際協力

Environmental protection might well be the most
productive purpose of foreign aid.

  We need strong, effective governments in the international sphere so that we can make the sacrifices of sovereignty needed to give us working supranational institutions for the world society and world economy.
  Protection of the environment today requires international ecological laws. We might “quarantine” polluters and forbid shipment in international commerce of goods produced under conditions that seriously pollute or damage the human habitat – for example, by polluting the oceans, by raising the temperature of the atmosphere, or by depleting its ozone. This will be decried as “interference with sovereign nations” – and so it is. It will probably require that the developed rich countries compensate the developing poor ones for the high costs of environmental protection, such as sewage treatment plants. In fact, environmental protection might well be the most productive purpose of foreign aid and far more successful than development aid.

ACTION POINT: Support the use of foreign aid to protect the environment.

The Age of Discontinuity
The New Realities

Government in the International Sphere [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





国際協力 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.25 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Strong Government 政府の強化

Government would be the “conductor” who ties to think through
what each instrument is best designed to do.

  We do not face a “withering away of the state,” as Karl Marx promised. On the contrary, we need a vigorous, a strong, and a very active government. But we do face a choice between big and impotent government and a government that is strong because it confines itself to decision and direction and leaves the “doing” to others. We do not face a “return of laissez-faire” in which the economy is left alone. In all major areas we have a new choice in this pluralist society of organizations: an organic diversity in which institutions are used to do what they are best equipped to do.
  Government would figure out how to structure a given political objective so as to make it attractive to one of the autonomous institutions. And just as we praise a composer for his ability to write “playable” music, which best uses the specific performance characteristic of French horn, violin, or flute, we may come to praise the lawmaker who best structures a particular task so as to make it most congenial for this or that of the autonomous, self-governing, private institutions of pluralist society.

ACTION POINT: Write a letter to an editor praising a lawmaker who structures government programs to be managed by nongovernmental institutions and to have the ability to solve social problems where government programs are deficient.

The Age of Discontinuity

Strong Government [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





政府の強化 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.24 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Government Decentralization 民営化の目的

Reprivatization will restore strength and performance capacity to sick
and incapacitated government.

  “Decentralization” applied to government would not be just another form of “federalism” in which local rather than central government discharges the “doing” tasks. It would rather be a systematic policy of using the other, the nongovernmental institutions of the society of organizations, for the actual “doing,” that is, for performance, operations, execution.
  Government would start out by asking the question: “How do these institutions work and what can they do?” It would then ask: “How can political and social objectives be formulated and organized in such a manner as to become opportunities for performance for these institutions?” It would then ask: “And what opportunities for accomplishment of political objectives do the abilities and capacities of these institutions offer to government?” Reprivatization will not weaken government. Indeed, its main purpose is to restore strength and performance capacity to sick and incapacitated government. We cannot go much further along the road on which government has been traveling. All we can get this way is more bureaucracy and not more performance.

ACTION POINT: Draft a proposal to turn a social program into an opportunity for your organization or one you might start.

The Age of Discontinuity

Government Decentralization [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





民営化の目的 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.23 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Purpose of Government 政府の目的

Every government is a “government of forms.”

  Government is a poor manager. It is, of necessity, concerned with procedure, and it is also, of necessity, large and cumbersome. Government is also properly conscious of the fact that it administers public funds and must account for every penny. It has no choice but to be “bureaucratic.” Whether government is a “government of laws” or a “government of men” is debatable. But every government is, by definition, a “government of forms.” This means inevitably high costs.
  But, the purpose of government is to make fundamental decisions, and to make them effectively. The purpose of government is to focus the political energies of society. It is to dramatize issues. It is to present fundamental choices. The purpose of government, in other words, is to govern. This, as we have learned, in other institutions, is incompatible with “doing.” Any attempt to combine governing with “doing” on a large scale, paralyzes the decision-making capacity. Business has had to face, on a much smaller scale, the problem that modern government now faces: the incompatibility between “governing” and “doing.” Business management learned that the two have to be separated, and that the top organ, the decision maker, has to be detached from “doing.” Otherwise he does not make decisions, and the “doing” does not get done either. In business this goes by the name of “decentralization.”

ACTION POINT: What are some clear examples of nonprofit organizations that are doing a better job addressing a social problem than a government agency?

The Age of Discontinuity

Purpose of Government [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





政府の目的 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.22 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Megastate 巨大国家の誕生

Government ceased to be the rule setter, the facilitator, the insurer,
the disbursement agent. It became the doer and the manager.

  While the nation-state was the sole political reality in the centuries of empires and superstates, it has transformed itself profoundly in the last hundred years. It mutated into the Megastate. The shift from the national state to the Megastate began in the last decades of the nineteenth century. The first small step toward the Megastate was German chancellor Bismarck’s invention in the 1880s of the Welfare State. The other major social program of the period immediately after World War II, the British National Health Service, was the first one (outside of the totalitarian countries) to take government beyond the role of insurer or provider. Hospitals and hospital care under the National Health Service were taken over by government. The people working in hospitals became government employees; and government actually manages the hospitals.
  By 1960, it had become accepted doctrine in all developed Western countries the government is the appropriate agent for all social problems and all social tasks. And this held until the 1990s.

ACTION POINT: Use the Internet to check out the service level provided by the British National Health Service. Based upon this example and others which you are aware of, from an opinion as to the effectiveness of government as a provider of health services versus nonprofit and for-profit entities.

Post-Capitalist Society

The Megastate [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





巨大国家の誕生 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.21 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Efficiency of the Profit Motive 利潤動機の利点

The profit motive alone gives fulfillment through power over things.

  The only relevant and meaningful question is whether the profit motive is the socially most efficient one of the available directions in which the drive for power can be channeled. But we can say that of the channels available and known to us, the profit motive has a very high, if not the highest, social efficiency. All the other known forms in which the lust for power can be expressed offer satisfaction by giving the ambitious man direct power and domination over his fellow men. The profit motive alone gives fulfillment through power over things.

ACTION POINT: Take a position: power over things is less dangerous socially than power over people.

Concept of the Corporation

The Efficiency of the Profit Motive [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





利潤動機の利点 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.20 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Moving Beyond Capitalism 資本主義を越えるもの

I believe it is socially and morally unforgivable when managers
reap huge profits for themselves but fire workers.

  I am for the free market. Even though it doesn’t work too well, nothing else works at all. But I have serious reservations about capitalism as a system because it idolizes economics as the be-all and end-all of life. It is one-dimensional. For example, I have often advised managers that a 20-1 salary ratio between senior executives and rank-and-file white-collar workers is the limit beyond which they cannot go if they don’t want resentment and falling morale to hit their companies.
  Today, I believe it is socially and morally unforgivable when managers reap huge profits for themselves but fire workers. As societies, we will pay a heavy price for the contempt this generates among middle managers and workers. In short, whole dimensions of what it means to be a human being and treated as one are not incorporated into the economic calculus of capitalism. For such a myopic system to dominate other aspects of life is not good for any society.

ACTION POINT: Have executives in your organization reaped huge profits for themselves while laying off significant numbers of workers? Enumerate the ways these policies have led to contempt and falling morale.

Managing in the Next Society

Moving Beyond Capitalism [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





資本主義を越えるもの [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.19 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Capitalism Justified 資本主義の正当化

Capitalism as a social order and as a creed is the expression of the belief
in economic progress as leading toward the freedom and equality
of the individual in the free and equal society.

  Capitalism expects the free and equal society to result from the enthronement of private profit as supreme ruler of social behavior. Capitalism did not, of course, invent the “profit motive.” Profit has always been one of the main motivating forces of the individual and will always be – regardless of the social order in which one lives. But the capitalist creed was the first and only social creed that valued the profit motive positively as the means by which the ideal free and equal society would be automatically realized. All previous creeds had regarded the profit motive as socially destructive, or at least neutral.
  Capitalism has, therefore, to endow the economic sphere with independence and autonomy, which means that economic activities must not be subjected to noneconomic considerations, but must rank higher. All social energies have to be concentrated upon the promotion of economic ends, because economic progress carries the promise of the social millennium. This is capitalism: and without this social end it has neither sense nor justification.

ACTION POINT: Think through to what extent your own economic activity or that of your organization contributes to social ends.

The End of Economic Man

Capitalism Justified [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





資本主義の正当化 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.18 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Conscience of Society 社会の良心

Religion cannot accept any society without abandoning its true Kingdom.

  The End of Economic Man reached the conclusion that the churches could not, after all, furnish the basis for European society and European politics. They had to fail, though not for the reasons for which the contemporaries tended to ignore them. Religion could indeed offer an answer to the despair of the individual and to his existential agony. But, it could not offer an answer to the despair of the masses. I am afraid that this conclusion still holds today. Western Man – indeed today Man altogether – is not ready to renounce this world. Indeed he still looks for secular salvation, if he expects salvation at all. And churches, especially Christian churches, can (and should) preach a “social gospel.” But they cannot (and should not) substitute politics for Grace, and social science for Redemption. Religion, the critic of any society, cannot accept any society or even any social program, without abandoning its true Kingdom, that of a Soul alone with its God. Therein lies both the strength of the churches as the conscience of society and their incurable weakness as political and social forces of society.

ACTION POINT: Religion should serve as a critic of society and not as a political force. How does this principle compare with the role of religion in the U.S. at the present time?

The End of Economic Man

The Conscience of Society [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





社会の良心 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.17 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Legitimate Power in Society 権力の正統性

No society can function as a society unless
the decisive social power is legitimate.

  Legitimate power stems from the same basic belief of society regarding man’s nature and fulfillment on which the individual’s social status and function rest. Indeed legitimate power can be defined as rulership that finds its justification in the basic ethos of society. In every society there are many powers that have nothing to do with such a principle, and institutions that in no way are either designed or devoted to its fulfillment. In other words, there are always a great many “unfree” institutions in a free society, a great many inequalities in an equal society, and a great many sinners among the saints. But as long as the decisive social power that we call rulership is based upon the claim of freedom, equality, or saintliness, and is exercised through institutions that are designed toward the fulfillment of these ideal purposes, society can function as a free, equal, or saintly society. For its institutional structure is one of legitimate power.

ACTION POINT: Think about the problem of creating legitimate power in Iraq after the fall of Saddam Hussein. What “unfree” institutions are likely to remain? What inequalities are likely to persist once legitimate power is established?

The Future of Industrial Man

Legitimate Power in Society [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





権力の正統性 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.16 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Placing Decision Responsibility 意思決定のレベル

Executives should be high enough to have the authority needed
to make the decisions and low enough to have the detailed knowledge.

  There are four basic characteristics that determine the nature of any business decision. First, there is the degree of futurity in the decision. For how long into the future does it commit the company? The second criterion is the impact a decision has on other functions, on other areas, or on the business as a whole. The character of a decision is also determined by the number of qualitative factors that enter into it: basic principles of conduct, ethical values, social and political beliefs, and so on. Finally, decisions can be classified according to whether they are periodically recurrent or rare, if not unique, decisions.
  A decision should always be made at the lowest possible level and as close to the sense of action as possible. However, a decision should always be made at a level ensuring that all activities and objectives affected are fully considered. The first rule tells us how far down a decision should be made. The second how far down it can be made, as well as which managers must share in the decision and which must be informed of it. The two together tell us where certain activities should be placed.

ACTION POINT: Push decision making down to as close to the action as possible. But remember: The longer a decision commits the organization, the wider its impact upon other functions, the greater the number of qualitative factors involved and finally, the rarer the decision, the higher in the organization the decision should be made.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Placing Decision Responsibility [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





意思決定のレベル [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.15 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Continuous Learning in Decision Making 意思決定の継続学習

Feedback from the results of a decision compared against the expectations
when it was being made mistakes even moderately endowed executives
into competent decision makers.

  In no area is it more important than in decision making to build continuous learning into the executive’s work. And the way to do this is to feed back from results of the decision to the expectations when it was being made. Whenever executives make an important decision, they put down in writing what results are expected and when. And then the executive, nine months or a year later, begins to feed back from the actual results to the expected ones and keeps on doing this as long as the decision is in force. So in an acquisition, for example, an executive compares the actual results to the expected ones for the two to five years it takes fully to integrate an acquisition.
  It’s amazing how much we learn by doing this and how fast. And physicians have been taught since Hippocrates in Greece 2,400 years ago to write down what course they expect a patient’s condition to take as a result of the treatment the physician prescribes, that is, as a result of the physician’s decision. And that, as every experienced physician will tell you, is what makes even moderately endowed doctors into competent practitioners within a few years.

ACTION POINT: When you make an important decision, make sure to write down the expected “prognosis.” Then at a time appropriate for the particular decision, go out and look at what results have transpired. Compare results to your prognosis. Compare results to your prognosis. Use what you learn in subsequent decision situations.

The Effective Executive
The Elements of Decision Making (Corpedia Online Program)

Continuous Learning in Decision Making [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





意思決定の継続学習 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.14 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Testing the Decision Against Results 決定のフィードバック

“Poor Ike.... Now... he’ll give an order and not a damn thing
is going to happen.”

  Feedback has to be built into the decision to provide a continuous testing, against actual events, of the expectations that underlie the decision. Decisions are made by people. People are fallible; at their best, their works do not last long. Even the best decision has a high probability of being wrong. Even the most effective one eventually becomes obsolete.
  When General Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected president, his predecessor, Harry S. Truman, said: “Poor Ike; when he was a general, he gave an order and it was carried out. Now he is going to sit in that big office and he’ll give an order and not a damn thing is going to happen.” The reason why “not a damn thing is going to happen” is, however, not that generals have more authority than presidents. It is that military organizations learned long ago that futility is the lot of most orders and organized the feedback to check on the execution of the order. They learned long ago that to go oneself and look is the only reliable feedback. Reports – all a president is normally able to mobilize – are not much help.

ACTION POINT: Make sure you go out and “kick the tires” and get on-site feedback. Find out if decisions have accomplished their intended results.

The Effective Executive

Testing the Decision Against Results [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





決定のフィードバック [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.13 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Getting Others to Buy The Decision 組織としての意思決定

If you wait until you have made the decision and then start to “sell” it,
it’s unlikely to ever become effective.

  Unless the organization has “bought” the decision, it will remain ineffectual; it will remain a good intention. And for a decision to be effective, being bought has to be built into it from the start of the decision-making process. This is one lesson to learn from Japanese management. As soon as it starts the decision-making process, and long before the final decision is made, Japanese management sells the decision.
  Everyone who is likely to be affected by a decision – say, to go into a joint venture with a Western company or to acquire a minority stake in a potential U.S. distributor – is asked to write down how such a decision would affect his work, job, and unit. He is expressly forbidden to have an opinion and to recommend or to object to the possible move. But he is expected to think it through. And top management, in turn, then knows where each of these people stands. Then top management makes the decision from the top down. There isn’t much “participatory management” in Japanese organizations. But everyone who will be affected by the decision knows what it is all about – whether he likes it or not – and is prepared for it. There is no need to sell it – it’s been sold.

ACTION POINT: Involve everyone who will have to carry out a decision in the process of making the decision. Then, based upon their contributors, decide who is most likely to carry out the decision effectively.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices
The Elements of Decision Making (Corpedia Online Program)

Getting Others to Buy The Decision [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





組織としての意思決定 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.12 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Defining the Problem: The Principles 正しい問題提起の条件

Until the definition of a problem explains and encompasses all
observable facts, the definition is incomplete or wrong.

  How do effective decision makers determine what the right problem is? Effective decision makers ask:
  • What is this all about?
  • What is pertinent here?
  • What is key to this situation?

Questions such as these are not new, yet they are of critical importance in defining the problem. The problem must be considered from all angles to ensure that the right problem is being tackled. The one way to make sure that the problem is correctly defined is to check it against the observable facts. Until problem definition explains and encompasses all observable facts, the definition is either still incomplete or, more likely, the wrong definition. But once the problem has been correctly defined, the decision itself is usually pretty easy.

ACTION POINT: Describe an occasion where you or someone else in your organization implemented the right answer to the wrong problem. What could you have done differently to ensure that the right problem was being tackled?

The Effective Executive
The Elements of Decision Making (Corpedia Online Program)

Defining the Problem: The Principles [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





正しい問題提起の条件 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.11 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Defining the Problem: An Example 間違った問題提起への正しい答え

The right answer to the wrong problem is very difficult to fix.

  Defining the problem may be the most important element in making effective decisions – and the one executives pay the least attention to. A wrong answer to the right problem can, as a rule, be repaired and salvaged. But the right answer to the wrong problem, that’s very difficult to fix, if only because it’s so difficult to diagnose.
  The management of one of America’s largest manufacturing companies prided itself on its safety record. The company had the lowest number of accidents per one thousand employees of any company in its industry and one of the very lowest of any manufacturing place in the world. Yet its labor union constantly berated it for its horrendous accident rate, and so did OSHA. The company thought this a public-relations problem and spent large sums of money advertising its near-perfect safety record. And yet the union attacks continued. By aggregating all accidents and showing them as accidents per thousand workers, the company did not see the places where there was a very high accident rate. Once the company segregated its accidents and reported them in a number of categories it found, almost immediately, that there was a very small number of places, about 3 percent of all units, that had above-average accident rates. And an even smaller number of places had very high accident rates. But they were the places the union got its complaints from, the places whose accidents got into the papers and into OSHA reports.

ACTION POINT: The manufacturing company described above defined the problem of its accidents as a public-relations problem. What “fact” did this problem definition ignore, making it the wrong definition?

The Effective Executive
The Elements of Decision Making (Corpedia Online Program)

Defining the Problem: An Example [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





間違った問題提起への正しい答え [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.10 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Classifying the Problem 問題の分類

By far the most common mistake is to treat a generic situation
as if it were a series of unique events.

  Executives face four basic types of problems:
    1. Generic events that are common within the organization and throughout the industry
    2. Generic events that are unique for the organization but common throughout the industry
    3. Truly unique events
    4. Events that appear to be unique but are really the first appearance of a new generic problem
All but the truly unique event requires a generic solution. Generic problem can be answered with standard rules and practices. Once the right principle has been developed, all manifestations of the same generic event can be handled by applying the standard principle. All the executive must do is adapt the principle to the concrete circumstances of the specific problem. Unique events, however, require a unique solution and must be treated individually. Truly unique events are quite rare; someone else has solved virtually every problem an organization faces already. Applying a standard rule or principle can solve most types of problems.

ACTION POINT: Cite an example of a problem you are facing that has a generic solution to it. What is that solution? Cite a problem you are facing that requires a unique solution. Develop the unique solution by following the rules for effective decision-making.

The Effective Executive
The Elements of Decision Making (Corpedia Online Program)

Classifying the Problem [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





問題の分類 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.09 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Is a Decision Necessary? 意思決定の必要性

One does not make unnecessary decisions any more than a good
surgeon does unnecessary surgery.

  Unnecessary decisions not only waste time and resources, but they also threaten to make all decisions ineffectual. Therefore, it is important that you be able to distinguish between necessary and unnecessary decisions. Surgeons provide perhaps the best example of effective decision-making, as they have had to make risk-taking decisions on a daily basis for thousands of years now. Since there is no such thing as risk-free surgery, unnecessary operations must be avoided. The rules used by surgeons to make decisions are:

Rule one: In a condition that is likely to cure itself or to stabilize itself without risk or danger or great pain to the patient, you put it on watch and check regularly. But you don’t cut. To do surgery in such a condition is an unnecessary decision.
Rule two: If the condition is degenerative or life-threatening and there is something you can do, you do it – fast and radically. It is a necessary decision despite the risk.
Rule three: This is the problem in between, and it’s probably the largest single category – the condition that is not degenerative and not life-threatening but still not self-correcting and quite serious. This is where the surgeon has to weigh opportunity against risk. And it is this decision that distinguishes the first-rate surgeon from the also-ran.

ACTION POINT: List three problems you are facing right now. Classify these problems as falling under rules 1, 2, or 3. Do not make unnecessary decisions.

The Effective Executive
The Elements of Decision Making (Corpedia Online Program)

英語題名 [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





日本語 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.08 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Elements of the Decision Process 意思決定のステップ

Ignore a single in the process and the decision will
tumble down like a badly built wall in an earthquake.

  Good decision makers know that decision making has its own process and its own clearly defined elements and steps. Every decision is risky: it is a commitment of present resources to an uncertain and unknown future. But if the process is faithfully observed and if the necessary steps are taken, the risk will be minimized and the decision will have a good chance of turning out successful. Good decision makers.
  • Know when a decision is necessary
  • Know that the most important part of decision making is to make sure that the decision is about the right problem
  • Know how to define the problem
  • Don’t even think about what is acceptable until they have thought through what the right decision is
  • Know that, in all likelihood, they will have to make compromises in the end
  • Know that they haven’t made a decision until they build its implementation and effectiveness into it

ACTION POINT: Take a predicament you are facing right now. What is the problem? Do not take any steps toward making a decision until you are sure that you have diagnosed the problem completely and correctly.

The Effective Executive
The Elements of Decision Making (Corpedia Online Program)

Elements of the Decision Process [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





意思決定のステップ [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.07 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Organize Dissent 意図しての不一致

The effective decision-maker organizes dissent.

  Decisions of the kind the executive has to make are not made well by acclamation. The are made well only if based on the clash of conflicting views, the dialogue between different points of view, the choice between different judgments. The first rule in decision making is that one does not make a decision unless there is disagreement.
  Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., is reported to have said at a meeting of one of the GM top committees, “Gentlemen, I take it we are all in complete agreement on the decision here.” Everyone around the table nodded assent. “Then,” continued Mr. Sloan, “I propose we postpone further discussion of this matter until our next meeting to give ourselves time to develop disagreement and perhaps gain some understanding of what the decision is all about.” There are three reasons why dissent is needed. It first safeguards the decision maker against becoming the prisoner of the organization. Everybody is a special pleader, trying – often in perfectly good faith – to obtain the decision he favors. Second, disagreement alone can provide alternatives to a decision. And a decision without an alternative is a desperate gambler’s throw, no matter how carefully thought through it might be. Above all, disagreement is needed to stimulate the imagination.

ACTION POINT: Organize dissent for a particular decision by bringing people with diverse points of view into the decision process. Choose on the basis of “what is right,” not “who is right.”

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Organize Dissent [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





意図しての不一致 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.06 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Building Action into the Decision 意思決定と行動

A decision is only a hope until carrying it out has become somebody’s
work assignment and responsibility, with a deadline.

  A decision is a commitment to action. Until the right thing happens, there has been no decision. And one thing can be taken for granted: the people who have to take the action are rarely the people who have made the decision. No decision has, in fact, been made until carrying it out has become somebody’s work assignment and responsibility – and with a deadline. Until then, it’s still only a hope.
  A decision will not become effective unless needed actions have been built into it from the start. Converting a decision into action requires answering several questions:
  • Who has to know of this decision?
  • What action has to be taken?
  • Who is to take it?
  • What does the action have to be so that the people who have to do it can do it?
The action must be appropriate to the capacities of the people who have to carry it out. This is especially important if people have to change their behavior, habits, or attitudes for the decision to become effective.

ACTION POINT: Think through a decision you have made. Who has to know of the decision? What action has to be taken? Who has to take the action? Make sure the people who have to take the action are able to do so.

The Effective Executive
The Elements of Decision Making (Corpedia Online Program)

Building Action into the Decision [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





意思決定と行動 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.05 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Right Compromise 正しい妥協

“Half a loaf is better than no bread.”

  One has to start out with what is right rather than what is acceptable (let alone who is right) precisely because one always has to compromise in the end. But if one does not know what is right to satisfy the specifications and boundary conditions, one cannot distinguish between the right compromise and the wrong compromise – and will end up by making the wrong compromise.
  There are two different kinds of compromise. One kind is expressed in the old proverb, “Half a loaf is better than no bread.” The other kind is expressed in the story of the Judgment of Solomon, which was clearly based on the realization that “half a baby is worse than no baby at all.” In the first instance, the boundary conditions are still being satisfied. The purpose of bread is to provide food, and half a loaf is still food. Half a baby, however, does not satisfy the boundary conditions. For half a baby is not half of a living a growing child. It is a corpse in two pieces.

ACTION POINT: Now think through the problem you specified in the two previous readings. Make a decision that represents a compromise, half a loaf, but goes in the right direction toward the ideal solution. Then think of a compromise that is “no bread at all.”

The Effective Executive

The Right Compromise [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





正しい妥協 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.04 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Decision Making 意思決定と妥協

Start with what is right rather than what is acceptable.

  One has to start out with what is right rather than what is acceptable precisely because one always has to compromise in the end. But if one does not know what is right, one cannot distinguish between the right compromise and the wrong compromise – and will end up by making the wrong compromise. I was taught this when I started in 1944 on my first big consulting assignment, a study of the management structure and management policies of the General Motors Corporation. Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., who was then chairman and chief executive officer of the company, called me to his office at the start of my study and said: “I shall not tell you what to study, what to write, or what conclusions to come to. My only instruction to you is to put down what you think is right as you see it. Don’t you worry about our reaction. And don’t you, above all, concern yourself with the compromises that might be needed to make your recommendations acceptable. There is not one executive in this company who does not know how to make a compromise without any help from you. But he can’t make the right compromise unless you first tell him what ‘right’ is.”
  The executive thinking through a decision might put this in front of him-or herself in neon lights.

ACTION POINT: Define an outcome for the decision in the previous reading that would perfectly satisfy your requirements.

The Effective Executive

Decision Making [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





意思決定と妥協 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.03 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Decision Objectives 意思決定の要件

A decision, to be effective, needs to satisfy the boundary conditions.

  A decision process requires clear specifications as to what the decision has to accomplish. What are the objectives the decision has to reach? In science these are known as “boundary conditions.” A decision, to be effective, needs to be adequate to its purpose. The more concisely and clearly boundary conditions are stated, the greater the likelihood that the decision will indeed be an effective one and will accomplish what it set out to do. Conversely, any serious shortfall in defining these boundary conditions is almost certain to make a decision ineffectual, no matter how brilliant it may seem.
  “What is the minimum needed to resolve this problem?” is the form in which the boundary conditions are usually probed. “Can our needs be satisfied,” Alfred P. Sloan presumably asked himself when he took command of General Motors in 1922, “by removing the autonomy of the division heads?” His answer was clearly in the negative. The boundary conditions of his problem demanded strength and responsibility in the chief operating positions. This was needed as much as control at the center and unity. The boundary conditions demanded a solution to a problem of structure, rather than an accommodation among personalities. And this, in turn, made his solution last.

ACTION POINT: Take a decision you are facing today. Clearly specify what purpose or need you want to fulfill by making the decision.

The Effective Executive

Decision Objectives [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





意思決定の要件 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.10.02 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

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【スエルテ - SUERTE】

Author:【スエルテ - SUERTE】
ピーター・ドラッカー(P.F.ドラッカー、Peter Ferdinand Drucker)の鋭い洞察力および示唆に富んだ文章は我々を魅了します。
『The Daily Drucker(ドラッカー 365の金言)』を元に毎日解説していきます。