Compensation Structure 報酬システム

Compensation must always try to balance recognition of the
individual with stability and maintenance of the group.

  People have to be paid, but every compensation system is liable to misdirect. Compensation always expresses status, both within the enterprise and in society. It entails judgments on a person’s worth as much as on performance. It is emotionally tied to all our ideas of fairness, justice, and equity. Money is, of course, quantitative. But the money in any compensation system expresses the most intangible, but also the most sensitive, values and qualities. No attempt at a “scientific formula” for compensation can therefore be completely successful.
  The best possible compensation plan is of necessity a compromise among the various functions and meanings of compensation, for the individual as well as for the group. Even the best plan will still disorganize as well as organize, misdirect as well as, and encourage the wrong as well as the right behavior. The preference should be for simple compensation systems rather than for complex ones. It should be for compensation systems that allow judgment to be used and that enable pay to be fitted to the job of the individual rather than impose one formula on everybody. All one can do is to watch lest the compensation system reward the wrong behavior, emphasize the wrong results, and direct people away from performance for the common good.

ACTION POINT: Develop a compensation system that rewards individual performance while balancing individual rewards with rewards that help maintain the continuity of the entire organization as a whole.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Compensation Structure [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





報酬システム [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー


2009.09.30 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Misdirection by Specialization スペシャリストの錯覚

“I am building a cathedral.”

  An old story tells of three stonecutters who were asked what they were doing. The first replied, “I am making a living.” The second kept on hammering while he said, “I am doing the best job of stonecutting in the entire country.” The third one looked up with a visionary gleam in his eyes and said, “I am building a cathedral.” The third man is, of course, the true manager. The first man knows what he wants to get out of the work and managers to do so. He is likely to give a “fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay.” But he is not a manager and will never be one. It is the second man who is a problem. Workmanship is essential: in fact, an organization demoralizes if it does not demand of its members the highest workmanship they are capable of. But there is always a danger that the true workman, the true professional, will believe that he is accomplishing something when in effect he is just polishing stones or collecting footnotes. Workmanship must be encouraged in the business enterprise. But it must always be related to the needs of the whole.

ACTION POINT: Develop a process whereby each person in the organization understands his or her contribution to producing the products and services of the enterprise.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Misdirection by Specialization [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





スペシャリストの錯覚 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.29 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Harmonize the Immediate and Long-range Future 短期と長期のバランス

A manager must, so to speak, keep his nose to the grindstone
while lifting his eyes to the hills – quite an acrobatic feat.

  A manager has two specific tasks. The first is creation of a true whole that is larger than the sum of its parts, a productive entity that turns out more than the sum of the resources put into it. The second specific task of the manager is to harmonize in every decision and action the requirements of the immediate and of the long-range future. A manager cannot sacrifice either without endangering the enterprise.
  If manager does not take care of the next hundred days, there will be no next hundred years. Whatever the manager does should be sound in expediency as well as in basic long-range objective and principle. And where he cannot harmonize the two time dimensions, he must at least balance them. He must calculate the sacrifice he imposes on the long-range future of the enterprise to protect its immediate interests, or the sacrifice he makes today for the sake of tomorrow. He must limit either sacrifice as much as possible. And he must repair as soon as possible the damage it inflicts. He lives and acts in two time dimensions, and is responsible for the performance of the whole enterprise and of his own component in it.

ACTION POINT: Develop a system of performance measures that will lead to maximizing the total wealth-producing capacity of your organization. Include both short-term measures and long-term measures, as well as quantitative and qualitative measures.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Harmonize the Immediate and Long-range Future [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





短期と長期のバランス [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.28 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Ultimate Control of Organizations 組織の価値観と人事

People act as they are being rewarded or punished.

  There is a fundamental, incurable, basic limitation to controls in a social institution. A social institution is comprised of persons, each with his own purpose, his own ambitions, his own ideas, his own needs. No matter how authoritarian the institution, it has to satisfy the ambitions and needs of its members, and do so in their capacity as individuals through institutional rewards and punishments, incentives, and deterrents. The expression of this may be quantifiable ? such as a raise in salary. But the system itself is not quantitative in character and cannot be quantified.
  Yet here is the real control of the institution. People act as they are being rewarded or punished. For this, to them, rightly, is the true expression of the values of the institution and of its true, as against its professed, purpose and a role. A system of controls that is not in conformity with this ultimate control of the organization, which lies in its people decisions, will therefore at best be ineffectual. At worst it will cause never-ending conflict and will push the organization out of control. In designing controls for an organization, one has to understand and realize that even the most powerful “instrument board” complete with computers is secondary to the invisible, qualitative control of any human organization, its systems of rewards and punishments, of values and taboos.

ACTION POINT: Specify the system of rewards and punishments in your organization, including the procedure used for making promotion decisions. Evaluate the performance measures in place in your organization. Make sure that good performance on the performance measures leads to rewards, promotions, and punishments.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

The Ultimate Control of Organizations [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





組織の価値観と人事 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.27 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Controls for Nonmeasurable Events データ化できないもの

A balance between the measurable and the nonmeasurable is a central
and constant problem of management.

  Business, like any other institution, has important results that are incapable of being measured. Any experienced executive knows companies of industries that are bound for extinction because they cannot attract or hold able people. This, every experienced executive also knows, is a more important fact about a company or an industry than last year’s profit statement. Yet the statement cannot be defined clearly let alone “quantified.” It is anything but “intangible”; it is very “tangible” indeed. It is just nonmeasurable. And measurable results will not show up for a decade.
  A balance between the measurable and the nonmeasurable is therefore a central and constant problem of management and a true decision area. Measurements that do not spell out the assumptions with respect to the nonmeasurable statements that are being made – misdirect, therefore. They actually misinform. Yet the more we can quantify the truly measurable areas, the greater the temptation to put all-out emphasis on those – the greater, therefore, the danger that what looks like better controls will actually mean less control if not a business out of control altogether.

ACTION POINT: List both nonmeasurable and measurable variables that are important to the achievement of the goals of your organization. Develop quantitative assessments for those variables that can be so measured and qualitative assessments for those critical variable that are qualitative.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Controls for Nonmeasurable Events [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





データ化できないもの [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.26 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Controls Should Focus on Results 成果のためのデータ

What today’s organization needs are synthetic sense organs for the outside.

  Every social institution exists to contribute to society, economy, and individual. In consequence results exist only on the outside – in economy, in society, and with the customer. It is the customer only who creates a profit. Everything inside a business creates only costs, is only a “cost center.” But results are entrepreneurial. Yet we do not have adequate, let alone reliable, information regarding the “outside.” The century of patient analysis of managerial, inside phenomena, events and data, the century of patient, skillful work on the individual operations and tasks within the business, has no counterpart with respect to the entrepreneurial job. We can easily record and therefore quantify efficiency, that is, efforts. It is of little value to have the most efficient engineering department if it designs the wrong product. And it mattered little, I daresay, during the period of IBM’s great expansion in the fifties and sixties how “efficient” its operations were; its basic entrepreneurial idea was the right, the effective one.
  The outside, the area of results, is much less accessible than the inside. The central problem of executives in the large organization is their insulation from the outside. What today’s organization therefore needs are synthetic sense organs for the outside. If modern controls are to make a contribution, it would be, above all, here.

ACTION POINT: Develop a systematic method of collecting critical information on the environment. The information should include knowledge of customer satisfaction, noncustomer buying habits, technological developments, competitors, and relevant government policies.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Controls Should Focus on Results [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





成果のためのデータ [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.25 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Controls: Neither Objective nor Neutral データの非客観性

The act of measurement changes both the event and the observer.

  In any social situation of the kind we deal with in enterprise, the act of measurement is neither objective nor neutral. It is subjective and of necessity biased. It changes both the event and the observer. Events in the social situation acquire value by the fact that they are being singled out for the attention of being measured. The fact that this or that set of phenomena is singled out for being “controlled” signals that it is considered to be important. Controls in a social institution such as a business are goal-setting and value-setting. They are not “objective.” They are of necessity moral. Controls create vision. They change both the events measured and the observer. They endow events not only with meaning but with value. And this means that the basic question is not “How do we control?” but “What do we measure in our control system?”

ACTION POINT: Remember, “What you measure is what you get.” Ensure that every measure of performance is pertinent to the achievement of a goal or value of your organization. Otherwise, you risk misdirecting your organization.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Controls: Neither Objective nor Neutral [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





データの非客観性 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.24 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Controls, Control, and Management データの意味

The probability of an event’s being meaningful
is a much more important datum than the event itself.

  We are rapidly acquiring great capacity to design controls in business and in other social institutions, based on a great improvement in techniques, especially the ability to process and analyze large masses of data very fast. What does this mean for “control”? Especially, what are the requirements for these greatly improved controls to give better control to management? For, in the task of a manager, controls are purely a means to an end; the end is control. If we deal with a human being in a social institution, controls must become personal motivation that leads to control. A translation is required before the information yielded by the controls can become grounds for action – the translation of one kind of information into another, which we call perception. In the social institution there is a second complexity, a second “uncertainty principle.” It is almost impossible to prefigure the responses appropriate to a certain event in a social situation.
  But a control-reading “profits are falling” does not indicate, with any degree of probability, the response “raise prices,” let alone by how much; the control-reading “sales are falling” does not indicate the response “cut prices,” and so on. The event itself may not even be meaningful. But even if it is, it is by no means certain what it means.

ACTION POINT: Review each of the performance measures you use to manage your organization. Eliminate each of those measures that is not meaningful to the results of the organization.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Controls, Control, and Management [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





データの意味 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.23 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Overage Executives 高齢の役員

Stay out of decisions if one won’t be around to help bail out
the organization.

  An employer should have in place a policy for the over-sixties in managerial and professional ranks. The basic rule, and one that should be clearly established and firmly enforced, is that people beyond their early sixties should ease out of major managerial responsibilities. It is a sensible rule for anyone, and not only for the executive, to stay out of decisions if one won’t be around to help bail out the company when the decisions cause trouble a few years down the road – as most of them do. The older executive should move into work one performs on one’s own rather than be the “boss.” This way, he or she specializes and concentrates on one major contribution, advises, teaches, sets standards, and resolves conflicts, rather than works as a “manager.” The Japanese have “counselors,” and they work very effectively, sometimes well into their eighties.

ACTION POINT: Develop a retirement policy for senior executives. Make sure these executives are not the sole decision-makers in decisions whose outcomes will occur beyond the tenure of these executives.

The Frontiers of Management

Overage Executives [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





高齢の役員 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.22 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

“Widow-Maker” Positions 後家づくりの仕事

A widow-maker position is a job that defeats
two competent people in a row.

  “Widow-maker” is the term that nineteenth-century New England shipbuilders used to describe a well-built new ship that still managed to have two fatal accidents in a row. Instead of attempting to fix the problems with the ship, they immediately broke it up to prevent another accident from occurring. In organizations, a window-maker is a job that defeats two competent people in a row. It will almost certainly defeat a third one, no matter how competent. The only thing to do is to abolish the widow-maker position and restructure the work. Widow-makers typically appear when an organization experiences rapid growth or rapid change. I have since seen this phenomenon in a lot of organizations – for example, in a university that within ten years had moved from being primarily an undergraduate teaching institution to becoming a major research university. That killed off two excellent people who took on the presidency as it had been structured the old way, and by the way, any number of deans – again, these positions could be filled successfully only after the university had restructured itself thoroughly.
  The “widow-maker” job is usually the result of accident. One person who somehow combined temperamental characteristics that are not usually found in one person created the job and acquitted himself or herself well. In other words, what looked like a logical job was an accident of personality rather than the result of a genuine function. But one cannot replace personality.

ACTION POINT: Is there a “widow-maker” position in your organization? Either restructure the position or eliminate it.

People Decisions (Corpedia Online Program)
Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

“Widow-Maker” Positions [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





後家づくりの仕事 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.21 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Staffing Decisions 人事

Where there are peaks, there are valleys.

  The people decision is a big gamble – by basing it on what a person can do, it at least becomes a rational gamble. Effective executives make strength productive. They fill positions and promote based upon what a person can do – not to minimize weakness but to maximize strength. Strong people always have strong weaknesses. Where there are peaks there are valleys. There is no such thing as a “good person”; “good for what?” is the question. Look for excellence in one major area, and not for performance that gets by all around. Human excellence can only be achieved in one are, or at the most, in very few. Always start out with what a person should be able to do well and then demand that he or she really do it.
  There is one area where weakness in itself is of importance and relevance. By themselves character and integrity do not accomplish anything. But their absence faults everything else. Here is the one area where weakness is an absolute disqualification.

ACTION POINT: When making people decisions, make sure you know the assignment. Then choose a candidate who has proven strengths in skill-areas required by the new assignment.

The Effective Executive

Staffing Decisions [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





人事 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.20 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

A Noncompetitive Life 仕事とは無縁の世界

No one can expect to live very long without experiencing
a serious setback in one’s life or in one’s work.

  Given the competitive struggle, a growing number of highly successful knowledge workers of both sexes – business managers, university teachers, museum directors, doctors – plateau in their forties. They know they have achieved all they will achieve. If their work is all they have, they are in trouble. Knowledge workers therefore need to develop, preferably while they are still quite young, a noncompetitive life and community of their own, and some serious outside interest. This outside interest will give them the opportunity for personal contribution and achievement beyond the workplace.
  No one can expect to live very long without experiencing a serious setback in one’s life or in one’s work. There is the competent engineer who at age forty-two is being passed over for promotion in the company. The engineer now knows that he has not been very successful in his job. But in his outside activity – for example, as treasurer in his local church – he has achieved success and continues to have success. And, one’s own family may break up, but in that outside activity, there is still a community.

ACTION POINT: Develop an interest that does not subject you to the competitive pressures you face at work. Try to find a community in this area of outside interest.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
The Next Society (Corpedia Online Program)

A Noncompetitive Life [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





仕事とは無縁の世界 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.19 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Managing Oneself: Revolution in Society 生き方革命

Managing oneself is based on these realities: Workers are likely to outlive organizations, and the knowledge worker has mobility.

  Managing oneself is a REVOLUTION in human affairs. It requires new and unprecedented things from the individual, and especially from the knowledge worker. For, in effect, it demands that each knowledge worker think and behave as a chief executive officer. It also requires an almost 180-degree change in the knowledge workers’ thoughts and actions from what most of us still take for granted as the way to think and the way to act.
  The shift from manual workers who do as they are being told – either by the task or by the boss – to knowledge workers who have to manage themselves profoundly challenges social structure. For every existing society, even the most “individualist” one, takes two things for granted, if only subconsciously: Organizations outlive workers, and most people stay put. Managing oneself is based on the very opposite realities. In the United States MOBILITY is accepted. But even in the United States, workers outliving organizations – and with it the need to be prepared for a second and different half of one’s life – is a revolution for which practically no one is prepared. Nor is any existing institution, for example, the present retirement system.

ACTION POINT: Begin thinking of a second career you find fulfilling. List areas of work that interest you, including that of a volunteer in a nonprofit organization.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century

Managing Oneself: Revolution in Society [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





生き方革命 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.18 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Managing Oneself: The Second Half セカンド・ライフ

What to do with the second half of one’s life?

  Knowledge workers are able physically to keep on working into old age, and well beyond any traditional retirement age. But they run a new risk: they may become mentally finished. What’s commonly called “burnout,” the most common affliction of the fortysomething knowledge worker, is very rarely the result of stress. Its common, all too common, cause is boredom on the job.
  In one big and highly successful company top management said to me: “Our engineers are slacking off. Can you try to find out why?” And so I talked to about a dozen very competent, very successful, very well paid people in engineering. And they all said: “My job is important to the success of the company. I like it. I have done it now for about ten years and I am very good at it and I am very proud of it. But I can do it now in my sleep. It no longer challenges me. I am just plain bored. I no longer look forward to coming into the office every morning.” Yet the obvious answer, that is to rotate people, would have been the wrong answer. These people are topflight specialists. What they needed was to regain some true interest. And once they had that – one of them, for instance, started to tutor high school students in math and science – suddenly their work, too, became again satisfying.

ACTION POINT: Set goals outside of your current work. Begin to pursue these goals now.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
Managing Oneself (Corpedia Online Program)

Managing Oneself: The Second Half [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





セカンド・ライフ [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.17 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Managing the Boss 上司のマネジメント

There is nothing quite as conducive to success
as a successful and rapidly promoted superior.

  Almost everybody has at least one boss. And the tend is for knowledge workers to have an increasing number of bosses, an increasing number of people on whose approval and appraisal they depend, and whose support they need.
  There are keys to success in managing bosses. First, put down on a piece of paper a “boss list,” everyone to whom you are accountable, everyone who appraises you and your work, everyone on whom you depend to make effective your work and that of your people. Next, go to each of the people on the boss list at least once a year and ask, “What do I do and what do my people do that helps you do your job?” And, “What do we do that hampers you and makes life more difficult for you?” It is your job to enable each of your bosses to perform as unique individuals according to their working styles. Your bosses should feel comfortable that you are playing to their strengths and safeguarding them from their limitations and weaknesses.

ACTION POINT: Make a “boss list.” Ask the questions listed in this reading to each person on your boss list.

The Effective Executive
Managing the Boss (Corpedia Online Program)

Managing the Boss [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





上司のマネジメント [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.16 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Managing Oneself: Work Relationships 集団と個

Organizations are built on trust, and trust is built on communication
and mutual understanding.

  Just as it is important for you to know your own strengths, work styles, and values, it is also important that you learn the strengths, work styles, and values of the people around you. Each person is an individual, and there are likely to be great differences between yourself and others. But such differences do not matter. What does matter is whether everyone performs. Consistent group performance can be achieved only if each person within the group is able to perform as an individual. And to help make this happen, you must build on other people’s strengths, other people’s work styles, and other people’s values.
  Once you have identified your strengths, work style, and values, as well as what your contribution should be, you must then consider who else needs to know about it. Everyone who depends on you and on whom you depend needs to know this information about how you work. Since communication is a two-way process, you should feel comfortable asking your coworkers to think through and define their own strengths, work styles, and values.

ACTION POINT: List the people who depend upon your contributions and the specific contribution each person requires. List those people on whom you depend and the contributions you require from each person. Inform both groups and be sure each person is served properly, including you.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
Managing Oneself (Corpedia Online Program)

Managing Oneself: Work Relationships [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





集団と個 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.15 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Managing Oneself: What to Contribute? 強みと貢献

Successful careers are not the products of luck of planning;
they are built by people who are able to seize those opportunities
that match their own strengths.

  Now that you have identified your strengths and work style you can begin to look for the right opportunities. These are the assignments that will enable you to use your strength, match your work style, and fit within your personal value system. They are also the assignments that help you to make the right contribution. But you first have to decide what your contribution should be.
  Figuring out the right contribution helps you move from knowledge to action. What do you think you should contribute? In other words, how can you make a difference within your organization? Answering these questions help you to analyze opportunities in search for the right few. When such opportunities do come along, it’s best to accept them if they suit you and how you work. It requires you to think through the requirements of a specific situation, your greatest potential contribution, and the results that must be achieved. It is through such processes that successful careers are built. They are not the products of luck or planning; they are built by people who are able to seize those opportunities that match their own strengths, work styles, and values.

ACTION POINT: Seek the opportunities that allow you to apply your strengths and match your work style and values.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
Managing Oneself (Corpedia Online Program)

Managing Oneself: What to Contribute? [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





強みと貢献 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.14 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Managing Oneself: How Do I Perform? 強みと価値観

Performance that violates your values corrupts,
and it will ultimately sap and destroy your strengths.

  Just as different people have different strengths and weakness, they also work and perform in different ways. For example, some people learn by reading, others by listening. And few readers can become successful listeners or vice versa. Learning style is just one of several factors that go into making up a person’s work style. There are other questions that must be answered. Do you work best when cooperating with others, or do you achieve results when working alone? If you work best with others, is it usually as a subordinate, peer, or supervisor? Do you need a predictable, structured work environment? Do you thrive under pressure?
  You also have to consider your personal values: are they comparable to or at least compatible with your strengths? If there is any conflict between your values and strengths, always choose values. Performance that violates your values corrupts, and it will ultimately sap and destroy your strengths. These are just some of the questions that must be answered. What is important is to figure out your unique work style.

ACTION POINT: Think through your work style by answering the questions in this reading. Think through your values. Do not apply your strengths to a position that will destroy your values. Find a position that is compatible with your values.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
Managing Oneself (Corpedia Online Program)

Managing Oneself: How Do I Perform? [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





強みと価値観 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.13 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Managing Oneself: Identify Strengths 強みを知って利用する

It takes far less energy to move from first-rate performance to excellence
than it does to move from incompetence to mediocrity.

  You can learn to identify your strengths by using feedback analysis. This is a simple process in which you write down every one of your key decisions and key actions along with the results that you expect them to achieve. Nine to twelve months later, check the actual results against expectations. After two to three years of use, you will know your strengths by tracking those decisions and actions where actual results fell in line with or exceeded expectations. Once you have identified your strengths through feedback analysis, you can use this knowledge to improve performance and results. You can make this happen in five ways.
  First, concentrate on your strengths. Second, work on improving strengths. You may need to learn new knowledge or to update old. Third, recognize disabling habits. The worst, and most common, one is arrogance. Oftentimes poor performance results from an unwillingness to pursue knowledge outside one’s own narrow specialty. Fourth, remedy bad habits and bad manners. All too often, a bad habit such as procrastination or bad manners makes cooperation and teamwork all but impossible. And fifth, figure out what you should not do.

ACTION POINT: Use feedback analysis to identify your strengths. Then go to work on improving your strengths. Identify and eliminate bad habits that hinder the full development of your strengths. Figure out what you should do and do it. Finally, decide what you should not do.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
Managing Oneself (Corpedia Online Program)

Managing Oneself: Identify Strengths [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





強みを知って利用する [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.12 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Results That Make a Difference 貢献

What results have to be achieved to make a difference?

  One question has to be asked to decide “What should I contribute?” “Where and how can I have results that make a difference?” The answer to this question has to balance a number of things. Results should be hard to achieve. They should require “stretching,” to use the present buzzword. But they should be within reach. To aim at results that cannot be achieved – or can be achieved only under the most unlikely circumstances – is not being “ambitious.” It is being foolish. At the same time, results should be meaningful. They should make a difference. And they should be visible and, if at all possible, measurable.
  The decision about “What should my contribution be?” balances three elements. First comes the question: “What does the situation require?” Then comes the question: “How could I make the greatest contribution, with my strengths, my way of performing, my values, to what needs to be done?” Finally, there is the question: “What results have to be achieved to make a difference?” This then leads to the action conclusions: what to do, where to start, how to start, what goals and deadlines to set.

ACTION POINT: Define results for your position that will make a difference. How can you make the greatest contribution based upon your strengths? Establish goals and set deadlines for them.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century

Results That Make a Difference [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





貢献 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.11 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Defining One’s Performance 仕事ぶりの定義

Performance is not hitting the bull’s-eye with every shot –
that is a circus act.

  The first requirement of organizational health is a high demand on performance. Indeed, one of the major reasons for demanding that management be by objectives and that it focus on the objective requirements of the task is the need to have managers set high standards of performance for themselves. This requires that performance be understood properly. Performance is not hitting the bull’s-eye with every shot. Performance is rather the consistent ability to produce results over prolonged periods of time and in a variety of assignments. A performance record must include mistakes. It must include failures. It must reveal a person’s limitations as well as his strengths.
  The one person to distrust is the one who never makes a mistake, never commits a blunder, never fails in what he tries to do. Either he is a phony, or he stays with the safe, the tried, and the trivial. The better a person is, the more mistakes he will make – for the more new things he will try.

ACTION POINT: Define performance as a “batting average.” Create an atmosphere where people are permitted to make mistakes. Evaluate a person’s performance as “the consistent ability to produce results over a relatively long period of time.”

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

Defining One’s Performance [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





仕事ぶりの定義 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.10 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Take Responsibility for Your Career キャリアの選択

The stepladder is gone, and there’s not even the implied structure
of an industry’s rope ladder. It’s more like vines,
and you bring your own machete.

  If a young man in a gray flannel suit represented the lifelong corporate type, what’s today’s image? Taking individual responsibility and not depending on any particular company. Equally important is managing your own career. You don’t know what you’ll be doing next, or whether you’ll work in a private office or one big amphitheater or even out of your home. You have to take responsibility for knowing yourself, so you can find the right jobs as you develop and as your family becomes a factor in your values and choices.
  Remarkably few Americans are prepared to select jobs for themselves. When you ask, “Do you know what you are good at? Do you know your limitations?” they look you in the eye with a blank stare. Or they often respond in terms of subject knowledge, which is the wrong answer. When they prepare their rézumés, they try to list positions like steps up a ladder. It is time to give up thinking of jobs or career paths as we once did and think in terms of taking on one assignment after another. We have to leap right over the search for objective criteria and get into the subjective – what I call competencies.

ACTION POINT: Take responsibility for your own career. List your strengths and limitations. What assignments are you prepared to take on next? Prepare to take on these assignments either inside of or outside of your current organization.

Managing in a Time of Great Change

Take Responsibility for Your Career [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





キャリアの選択 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.09 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Knowledge Worker as Effective Executive 個のニーズと社会のニーズ

The executive who works at making strengths productive – his own
as well as those of others – works at making organizational
performance compatible with personal achievement.

  Self-development of the executive toward effectiveness is the only available answer to satisfy both the objective needs of society for performance by the organization, and the needs of the person for achievement and fulfillment. It is the only way in which organization goals and individual needs can come together. Executives who work at making strengths productive – his own as well as those of others – work at making organizational performance compatible with personal achievement. They work at making their knowledge area become organizational opportunity. And by focusing on contribution, they make their own values become organization results.
  Knowledge workers demand economic rewards too. Their absence is a deterrent. But their presence is not enough. They need opportunity; they need achievement; they need fulfillment; they need values. Only by making themselves into effective executives can knowledge workers obtain these satisfactions. Only executive effectiveness can enable society to harmonize its two needs: the needs of the organization to obtain from the individual the contribution it needs, and the need of the individuals to have the organization serve as their tool for the accomplishment of their purposes.

ACTION POINT: Know your strengths. Apply them to areas in your organization where you can make a contribution. Make sure your values and the values of the organization are compatible.

The Effective Executive

Knowledge Worker as Effective Executive [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





個のニーズと社会のニーズ [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.08 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

How to Develop People 人の成長と組織

Any organization develops people; it either forms them or deforms them.

  Any organization develops people; it has no choice. It either helps them grow or it stunts them. What do we know about developing people? Quite a bit. We certainly know what not to do, and those don’ts are easier to spell out than the dos. First, one does not try to build upon people’s weakness. One can expect adults to develop manners and behavior and to learn skills and knowledge. But one has to use people’s personalities the way they are, not the way we would like them to be. A second don’t is to take a narrow and shortsighted view of the development of people. One has to learn specific skills for a specific job. But development is more than that: it has to be for a career and for a life. The specific job must fit into this longer-term goal. Another thing we know is not to establish crown princes. Look always at performance, not at promise. With the focus on performance and not potential, the executive can make high demands. One can always relax standards, but one can never raise them. Next, the executive must learn to place people’s strengths.
  In developing people the lesson is to focus on strengths. Then make really stringent demands, and take the time and trouble (it’s hard work) to review performance. Sit down with people and say: “This is what you and I committed ourselves to a year ago. How have you done? What have you done well?”

ACTION POINT: Develop your people. Focus first on their strengths. Then make high demands based on a person’s strengths. Finally, periodically review their performance.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization

How to Develop People [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





人の成長と組織 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.07 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Performance Appraisals 人事のための4つの問い

Appraisals – and the philosophy behind them – are far too
much concerned with “potential.”

  Effective executives usually work out their own unique form of performance appraisal. It starts out with a statement of the major contributions expected from a person in his past and present positions and a record of his performance against these goals. Then it asks four questions:

  1. What has he [or she] done well?

  2. What, therefore, is he likely to be able to do well?

  3. What does he have to learn or to acquire to be able to get the full benefit from his strength?

  4. If I had a son or daughter, would I be willing to have him or her work under this person?

    1. If yes, why?

    2. If no, why?

  This appraisal actually takes a much more critical look at a person than the usual procedure does. But it focuses on strengths. Weaknesses are seen as limitations to the full use of strengths and to one’s own achievement, effectiveness, and accomplishment. The last question (b.) is the only one that is not primarily concerned with strengths. Subordinates, especially bright, young, and ambitious ones, tend to mold themselves after a forceful boss. There is, therefore, nothing more corrupting and more destructive in an organization than a forceful but basically corrupt executive. Here, therefore, is the one area where weakness is a disqualification by it self rather than a limitation on performance capacity and strength.

ACTION POINT: Adhere to the four questions in this reading when conducting performance appraisals.

The Effective Executive

Performance Appraisals [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





人事のための4つの問い [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.06 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Focus on Contribution 貢献第一主義

The question “What should I contribute?” gives freedom because
it gives responsibility.

  The great majority of executives tend to focus downward. They are occupied with efforts rather than with results. They worry over what the organization and their superiors “owe” them and should do for them. And they are conscious above all of the authority they “should have.” As a result, they render themselves ineffectual. The effective executive focuses on contribution. He looks up from his work and outward toward goals. He asks: “What can I contribute that will significantly affect the performance and the results of the institution I serve?” His stress is on responsibility.
  The focus on contribution is the key to effectiveness: in a person’s own work – its content, its level, its standards, and its impacts; in his relations with others – his superiors, his associates, his subordinates; in his use of the tools of the executive such as meetings or reports. The focus on contribution turns the executive’s attention away from his own specialty, his own narrow skills, his own department, and toward the performance of the whole. It turns his attention to the outside, the only place where there are results.

ACTION POINT: Maintain a constant focus on the contribution you can and should make to your organization.

The Effective Executive
Management Challenges for the 21st Century

Focus on Contribution [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





貢献第一主義 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.05 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Practices of Effective Executives 5つの成果能力

All that effective executives have in common is the ability
to get the right things done.

  The effective executives I have seen differ widely in their temperaments and abilities, in what they do and how they do it, in their personalities, their knowledge, their interests – in fact, in almost everything that distinguishes human beings. But all effective executives I’ve known perform only necessary tasks and eliminate unnecessary ones.
  Five practices have to be acquired to be effective. Effective executives know where their time goes. They work systematically at managing the little of their time that can be brought under their control. Effective executives focus on outward contributions. Effective executives build on strengths – theirs and others. They do not build on weaknesses. Effective executives concentrate on superior performance where superior performance will produce outstanding results. They force themselves to stay within priorities. Effective executives make effective decisions. They know that this is a system – the right steps in the right sequence. They know that to make decisions fast is to make the wrong decisions. Whenever I have found a person who – no matter how great in intelligence, industry, imagination, or knowledge – fails to observe these practices, I have also found an executive deficient effectiveness.

ACTION POINT: Commit these five tasks to memory and practice them: know where your time goes; focus on outward contributions; build on strengths; concentrate on superior performance; and make effective decisions.

The Effective Executive

Practices of Effective Executives [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





5つの成果能力 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.04 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Consolidate Time 時間をまとめる

Effective executives know that one rarely overprunes.

  The final step in time management is to consolidate the time that record and analysis show as normally available and under the executive’s control. To be effective every executive needs to be able to dispose of time in fairly large chunks. This is particularly true with respect to time spent working with people, which is, of course, a central task in the work of the executive. The manager who thinks that she can discuss the plans, direction, and performance of one of her subordinates in fifteen minutes is just deceiving herself.
  There are a good many ways to consolidate time. Some people work at home one or more days a week. Other executives schedule all the operating work – the meetings, reviews, problem-sessions, and so on – for two days a week and set aside the mornings of the remaining days for consistent, continuing work on major issues. But the method by which one consolidates one’s discretionary time is far less important that the approach. Effective executives start out by estimating how much discretionary time they car realistically call their own. And if they find later that other matters encroach on this reserve, they scrutinize their record again and get rid of some more time demands from less-than-fully-productive activities.

ACTION POINT: Consolidate your time and set aside large blocks of time to complete major tasks.

The Effective Executive

Consolidate Time [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





時間をまとめる [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.03 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Record Time and Eliminate Time Wasters 時間浪費の中止

All one has to do is to learn to say “no” if an activity contributes nothing.

  The first step toward executive effectiveness is to record actual time-use. There are executives who keep such a time long themselves. Others have their secretaries do it for them. The important thing is that it gets done, and that the record is made in “real” time. A good many effective executives keep such a long continuously and look at it regularly every month. After each such sample, they rethink and rework their schedule. First one tries to identify and eliminate the things that need not be done at all, the things that are purely a waste of time without any results whatever. To find these time wasters, one asks of all activities in the time records: “What would happen if this were not done at all?” And if the answer is, “Nothing would happen,” then obviously the conclusion is to stop doing it.

ACTION POINT: Create a time log of your activities. Eliminate those activities that are time wasters.

The Effective Executive

Record Time and Eliminate Time Wasters [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





時間浪費の中止 [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.02 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Know Thy Time 汝の時間を知れ

Effective executives start with their time.

  “Know thyself,” the old prescription for wisdom, is almost impossibly difficult for mortal men. But everyone can follow the injunction “Know thy time” if one wants to, and be well on the road toward contribution and effectiveness.
  Most discussions of the effective’s task start with the advice to plan one’s work. This sounds eminently plausible. The only thing wrong with it is that it rarely works. The plans always remain on paper, always remain good intentions. They seldom turn into achievement. Effective executives, in my observation, do not start with their tasks. They start with their time. And they do not start out with planning. They start by finding out where their time actually goes. Then they attempt to manage their time and to cut back unproductive demands on their time. Finally they consolidate their “discretionary” time into the largest possible continuing units. This three-step process
  • recording time
  • managing time
  • consolidating time
is the foundation of executive effectiveness.

ACTION POINT: Find out where your time goes by recording, managing, and consolidating your time.

The Effective Exective

Know Thy Time [毎日ドラッカー] The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done Peter Ferdinand Drucker P.F.Drucker





汝の時間を知れ [毎日ドラッカー] ドラッカー 365の金言 ピーター・ドラッカー P.F.ドラッカー

2009.09.01 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

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【スエルテ - SUERTE】

Author:【スエルテ - SUERTE】
ピーター・ドラッカー(P.F.ドラッカー、Peter Ferdinand Drucker)の鋭い洞察力および示唆に富んだ文章は我々を魅了します。
『The Daily Drucker(ドラッカー 365の金言)』を元に毎日解説していきます。