Psychological Insecurity 雇用不安の害

Insecurity permeates the entire industrial situation.

  Insecurity – not economic but psychological insecurity – permeates the entire industrial situation. It creates fear; and since it is fear of the unknown and the unpredictable, it leads to a search for scapegoats and culprits. Only if we restore the worker’s belief in the rationality and predictability of the forces that control his job, can we expect any policies in the industrial enterprise to be effective. In no other area can we hope to achieve so much so fast. All the basic forces – the objective requirements of society, the objective requirements of the enterprise, and the objective needs and requirements of the individual – work in the direction of making the industrial enterprise a functioning institution.

ACTION POINT: Set up a plan to stay on top of your knowledge area. If your employer cannot provide you with the training and experiences to maintain your employability, consider changing jobs.

The New Society






2009.04.30 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Business Ethics プロとしての倫理

“Primum non nocere – ‘First do no harm.’ ”

  The first responsibility of a professional was spelled out clearly, 2,500 years ago, in the Hipprocratic oath of the Greek physician: primum non nocere, “above all, not knowingly to do harm.” No professional, be she doctor, lawyer, or manager, can promise that she will indeed do good for her client. All she can do is try. But she can promise that she will not knowingly do harm. And the client, in turn, must be able to trust the professional not knowingly to do the client harm. Otherwise he cannot trust her at all. And primum non nocere, “not knowingly to do harm,” is the basic rule of professional ethics, the basic rule of an ethics of public responsibility.

ACTION POINT: First do no harm.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices





2009.04.29 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Ethics of Social Responsibility 社会的責任と倫理

What is business ethics? “It’s casuistry.”

  What is business ethics? “It’s casuistry,” the historian of Western philosophy would answer. Casuistry asserted that rulers, because of their responsibility, have to strike a balance between the ordinary demands of ethics that apply to them as individuals and their social responsibility to their kingdom. But this implies that the rules that decide what is ethical for ordinary people do not apply equally, if at all, to those with social responsibility. Ethics for them is instead a cost-benefit calculation involving the demands of individual conscience and the demands of position – and that means that the rulers are exempt from the demands of ethics, if only their behavior can be argued to confer benefits on other people.
  A great horror story of business ethics would, to the casuist, appear as an example of business virtue if not of unselfish business martyrdom. In the “electrical apparatus conspiracy” of the late 1950s, several high-ranking General Electric executives were sent to jail. They were found guilty of a criminal conspiracy in violation of antitrust because orders for heavy generating equipment, such as turbines, were parceled out among the three electrical apparatus manufacturers in the United States – General Electric, Westinghouse, and Allis Chalmers. The purpose of the cartel was the protection of the weakest and most dependent of the companies, Allis Chalmers. As soon as government action destroyed the cartel, Allis Chalmers had to go out of the turbine business and had to lay off several thousand people.

ACTION POINT: Document two decisions in your career where casuistry has been the basis of the ethics behind these decisions. What decisions should have been made in these cases?

The Ecological Vision




*訳注 倫理と義務の選択において義務を上位におく理論


2009.04.28 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

What Is Business Ethics? 企業倫理論の間違い

Business ethics assumes that for some reason the ordinary rules of ethics do not apply to business.

  The fundamental axiom on which the Western tradition of ethics has always been based is: There is only one code of ethics, that of individual behavior, for prince and pauper, for rich and poor, for the mighty and the meek alike. Ethics, in the Judeo-Christian tradition, is the affirmation that all men and women are alike creatures – whether the Creator be called God, Nature, or Society. There is only one ethics, one set of rules of morality, one code, that of individual behavior in which the same rules apply to everyone alike. And this fundamental axiom business ethics denies. Business ethics, in other words, is not ethics at all, as the term has commonly been used by Western philosophers and Western theologians. Business ethics assumes that for some reason the ordinary rules of ethics do not apply to business. What is business ethics then?

ACTION POINT: Do not separate personal values of what is right and wrong from the values you put into practice at work.

The Ecological Vision





2009.04.27 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Corporate Greed and Corruption 貪欲と腐敗

Every boom puts crooks in at the top.

  It’s easy to look good in a boom. But also, every boom – and I have lived and worked through four or five – puts crooks in at the top. In January 1930, my first assignment as a young journalist was to cover the trial of the top management of what had been Europe’s biggest and proudest insurance company, who had systematically plundered their company – and so it goes after every boom. The only thing new is that the last boom considerably increased the temptation to fake the books – the exclusive emphasis on quarterly figures, the overemphasis on the stock price, the well-meant but idiotic belief that executives should have major financial stakes in the company, the stock options (which I have always considered an open invitation to mismanagement), and so on, Otherwise there’s no difference.

ACTION POINT: Beware: economic booms bring financial predators, as well as prosperity.

“An Interview with Peter Drucker,” The Academy of Management Executive





2009.04.26 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Sloan on Social Responsibility スローン流社会的責任論

Authority without responsibility is illegitimate;
but so is responsibility without authority.

  “Public” responsibility was to Alfred Sloan worse than unprofessional; it was irresponsible, a usurpation of power. “We have a responsibility toward higher education,” a chief executive of a major American corporation once said at a meeting both Sloan and I attended. “Do we in business have any authority over higher education?” Sloan asked. “Should we have any?” “Of course not,” was the answer. “Then let’s not talk about ‘responsibility,’ “ said Sloan with asperity. “You are a senior executive in a big company and you know the first rule: authority and responsibility must be congruent and commensurate to each other. If you don’t want authority and shouldn’t have it, don’t talk about responsibility. And if you don’t want responsibility and shouldn’t have it, don’t talk about authority.”
  Sloan based this on management principles. But of course it is the first lesson of political theory and political history. Authority without responsibility is illegitimate; but so is responsibility without authority. Both lead to tyranny. Sloan wanted a great deal of authority for his professional manager, and was ready to take higher responsibility. But for that reason he insisted on limiting authority to the areas of professional competence, and refused to assert or admit responsibility in areas outside them.

ACTION POINT: Do your areas of responsibility match your authority? Make recommendations for achieving a closer match.

Adventures of a Bystander





2009.04.25 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Social Responsibility 企業の社会的責任

Good intentions are not always socially responsible.

  A business that does not show a profit at least equal to its cost of capital is irresponsible; it wastes society’s resources. Economic profit performance is the base without which business cannot discharge any other responsibilities, cannot be a good employer, a good citizen, a good neighbor. But economic performance is not the only responsibility of a business any more than educational performance is the only responsibility of a school or health care the only responsibility of a hospital.
  Every organization must assume responsibility for its impact on employees, the environment, customers, and whomever and whatever it touches. That is social responsibility. But we also know that society will increasingly look to major organizations, for-profit and nonprofit alike, to tackle major social ills. And there we had better be watchful, because good intentions are not always socially responsible. It is irresponsible for an organization to accept – let alone to pursue – responsibilities that would impede its capacity to perform its main task and mission or to act where it has no competence.

ACTION POINT: When it comes to corporate philanthropy, make sure your company doesn’t take its eye off the ball.

Managing in a Time of Great Change





2009.04.24 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Crucial Promotions 最も重要な昇進

The crucial promotion is into the group from which
tomorrow’s top people will have to be selected.

  If a company is to obtain the needed contributions, it must reward those who make them. Decisions on people and especially its promotions affirm what an organization really believes in, really wants, really stands for. They speak louder than words and tell a clearer story than any figures.
  The crucial promotion is not a person’s first – though it may be the most important one to her and to her career. Nor is it the final one into the top position; there a management must choose from a small, already preselected group. The crucial promotion is into the group from which tomorrow’s top people will have to be selected. It is the decision at the point where the pyramid in an organization narrows abruptly. Up to this point, there are in a large organization usually forty to fifty people to choose from for every vacant spot. Above it, the choice narrows to one out of three or four. Up to this point also, a person usually works in one area or function. Above it, she works in the business.

ACTION POINT: Use your influence to ensure that promotions to positions of senior leadership affirm what your organization really stands for.

Managing for Results





2009.04.23 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

A Good Judge of People? 人の見分け方

“There are only people who make people decisions right…and people
who make people decisions wrong and then repent at leisure.”

  “I know,” Mr. Sloan continued, “you think I should be a good judge of people. Believe me, there’s no such person. There are only people who make people decisions right, and that means slowly, and people who make people decisions wrong and then repent at leisure. We do make fewer mistakes, not because we’re good judges of people but because we’re conscientious.”
  Decisions on people usually provoked heated debate in the General Motors executive committee. But on one occasion the whole committee seemed to be agreed on one candidate – he had handled this crisis superbly, solved that problem that problem beautifully, quenched yonder fire with great aplomb – when suddenly Mr. Sloan broke in. “A very impressive record your Mr. Smith has,” he said, “but do explain to me how he gets into all those crises he then so brilliantly surmounts?” Nothing more was heard of Mr. Smith. However, on occasion Mr. Sloan could also say, “You know all the things Mr. George cannot do – how come he got as far as he did? What can he do?” And when Mr. Sloan was told, he would say, “Alright, he’s not brilliant, and not fast, and looks drab. But hasn’t he always performed?” And Mr. George turned into a most successful general manager in a big division at a difficult time.

ACTION POINT: Make decisions on people your top priority. Spend more time on these decisions so that you will not have to “repent at leisure.”

Adventures of a Bystander





2009.04.22 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Sloan on People Decisions スローンの人事

“If we didn’t spend four hours on placing a man and placing him right,
we’d spend four hundred hours on cleaning up after our mistake.”

  During the years in which I attended the meetings of GM’s top committees, the company made basic decisions on postwar policies such as capital investments; overseas expansion; the balance between automotive businesses, accessory businesses, and nonautomotive businesses; union relations; and financial structure….I soon realized that a disproportionate amount of time was taken up with decisions on people compared to the time spent on decisions on policy. On one occasion the committee spent hours discussing the work and assignment of a position way down the line....As we went out, I turned and said, “Mr. Sloan, how can you afford to spend four hours on a minor job like this?” “This corporation pays me a pretty good salary,” he said, “for making the important decisions, and for making them right….If that master mechanic in Dayton is the wrong man, our decisions might as well be written on water. He converts them into performance. And as for taking a lot of time, that’s horse apples” (his strongest and favorite epithet)….”If we didn’t spend four hours on placing a man and placing him right, we’d spend four hundred hours on cleaning up after our mistake – and that time I wouldn’t have. The decision,” he concluded, “about people is the only truly crucial one. You think and everybody thinks that a company can have ‘better’ people. All it can do is place people right – and then it’ll have performance.”

ACTION POINT: Make decisions on people – selection, placement, and evaluation – your top priority.

Adventures of a Bystander





2009.04.21 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Succession Decision トップの承継

The most critical people decision, and the one that is hardest to undo,
is the succession to the top.

  The succession to the top decision is the most difficult because every such decision is a gamble. The only test performance in the top position is performance in the top position – and there is very little preparation for it. What not to do is fairly simple. You don’t want a carbon copy of the outgoing CEO. If the outgoing CEO says, “Joe [or Mary] is just like me thirty years ago,” that’s a carbon copy – and carbon copies are always weak. Be a little leery, too, of the faithful assistant who for eighteen years has been at the boss’s side anticipating his or her every wish, but has never made a decision alone. By and large, people who are willing and able to make decisions don’t stay in the assistant role very long. Stay away, too, from the appointed prince. Nine times out of ten that’s a person who has managed to avoid ever being put in a position where performance is essential, measured, and where he or she might make a mistake. They are media events rather than performers.
  What are the positive ways to handle the succession decision? Look at the assignment. In this institution, what is going to be the biggest challenge over the next few years? Then look at the people and their performance. Match the need against proven performance.

ACTION POINT: Determine what the single biggest challenge facing your organization is going to be over the next five years and choose someone who has a proven track record of surmounting those challenges.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization





2009.04.20 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Placements That Fail 人事の5つのルール

The soldier has a right to competent command.

  There is no such thing as a perfect record in making people decisions. Successful executives follow five ground rules. First, the executive must accept responsibility for any placement that fails. To blame the nonperformance is a cope-out. The executive made a mistake in selecting that particular person. But second, the executive does have the responsibility to remove people who do not perform. The incompetent or poor performer, when left in his or her job, penalizes all others and demoralizes the entire organization. Third, just because a person doesn’t perform in the job he or she was put in doesn’t mean that that person is a bad worker whom the company should let go. It only means that he or she is in the wrong job. Fourth, the executive must try to make the right people decisions for every position. An organization can only perform to the capacity of its individual workers; thus people decisions must be right. And fifth, newcomers best be put in an established position where the expectations are known and help is available. New major assignments should mainly go to people whose behaviors and habits are well known and who have already earned trust and credibility.

ACTION POINT: Accept responsibility for placements that fail. Remove people who do not perform.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization
People Decisions (Corpedia Online Program)





2009.04.19 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Decision Steps for Picking People 人事の5つの手順

The most important thing is that the person and the assignment fit each other.

  General George C. Marshall followed Five Simple Decision Steps in making people decisions. First, Marshall carefully thought through the assignment. Job description may last a long time, but job assignments change all the time. Second, Marshall always looked at several qualified people. Formal qualifications, such as those listed in a résumé, are no more than a starting point. Their absence disqualifies a candidate. However, the most important thing is the person and the assignment fit each other. To find the best fit, you must consider at least three to five candidates. Third, Marshall studied the performance records of all three to five candidates to find what each did well. He looked for the candidate’s strengths. The things a person cannot do are of little importance; instead, you must concentrate on the things they can do and determine whether they are the right strengths for this particular assignment. Performance can only be built on strengths. Fourth, Marshall discussed the candidates with others who had worked with them. The best information often comes through informal discussions with a candidate’s former bosses and colleagues. And fifth, once the decision was made, Marshall made sure the appointee understood the assignment. Perhaps the best way to do this is to ask the new person to carefully think over what they have to do to be a success, and then, ninety days into job, have the person commit it to writing.

ACTION POINT: Follow these five decision steps when hiring someone: Understand the job, consider three to five people, study candidates performance records to find their strengths, talk to the candidates’ colleagues about them, and once hired, explain the assignment to the new employee.

The Essential Drucker
People Decisions (Corpedia Online Program)





2009.04.18 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Picking People: An Example 強みによる人事

Don’t hire a person for what they can’t do; hire them for what they can do.

  A very great leader of men, General George C. Marshall, chief of staff of the U.S. Army during World War II, had the most remarkable record of putting people into the right place at the right time. He appointed something like six hundred people to positions as general officer, division commander, and so on, almost without a dud. And not one of these people had ever commanded troops before. A discussion would come up, and Marshall’s aides would say, “Colonel So-and-So is the best trainer of people we have, but he has never gotten along with his boss. If he has to testify before Congress, he’ll be a disaster. He is so rude.” Marshall would then ask, “What is the assignment? To train a division? If he is first-rate as a trainer, put him in. The rest is my job.” As a result, he created the largest army the world had ever seen, thirteen million people, in the shortest possible time, with very few mistakes. The lesson is to focus on strengths.

ACTION POINT: Know the strengths of each person you hire.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization





2009.04.17 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Attracting and Holding People 人材の確保

The first sign of decline of an industry is loss of appeal to able people.

  In the area of people genuine marketing objectives are required. “What do our jobs have to be to attract and hold the kind of people we need and want? What is the supply available on the job market? And, what do we have to do to attract it?” It is highly desirable to have specific objectives for manager supply, development, and performance, but also specific objectives for major groups within the nonmanagerial workforce. There is need for objectives for employee attitudes as well as for employee skills.
  The first sign of decline of an industry is loss of appeal to qualified, able, and ambitious people. The American railroads, for instance, did not begin their decline after World War II – it only became obvious and irreversible then. The decline actually set in around the time of World War I. Before World War I, able graduates of American engineering schools looked for a railroad career. From the end of World War I on – for whatever reason – the railroads no longer appealed to young engineering graduates, or to any educated young people. As a result, there was nobody in management capable and competent to cope with new problems when the railroads ran into heavy weather twenty years later.

ACTION POINT: Set objectives for attracting and retaining the best people, including goals for performance standards and employee attitudes and skills.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices





2009.04.16 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

People Decisions 百発百中の人事

No organization can do better than the people it has.

  People decisions are the ultimate – perhaps the only – control of an organization. People determine the performance capacity of an organization. No organization can do better than the people it has. The yield from the human resource really determines the organization’s performance. And that’s decided by the basic people decisions: whom we hire and whom we fire, where we place people, and whom we promote. The quality of these human decisions largely determines whether the organization is being run seriously, whether its mission, its values, and its objectives are real and meaningful to people, rather than just public relations and rhetoric.
  Any executive who starts out believing that he or she is a good judge of people is going to end up making the worst decisions. To be a judge of people is not a power given to mere morals. Those who have a batting average of almost a thousand in such decisions start out with a very simple premise: that they are not judges of people. They start out with a commitment to a diagnostic process. Medical educators say their greatest problem is the brilliant young physician who has a good eye. He has to learn not to depend on that alone but to go through the patient process of making a diagnosis; otherwise he kills people. An executive, too, has to learn not to depend on insight and knowledge of people but on a mundane, boring, and conscientious step-by-step process.

ACTION POINT: Don’t hire people based on your instincts. Have a process in place to research and test applicants thoroughly.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization





2009.04.15 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Alfred Sloan’s Management Style マネジメント・スタイル

“A Chief Executive Officer who has ‘friendships’ within the company …
cannot remain impartial.”

  Rarely has a chief executive of an American corporation been as respected and revered as Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., was at General Motors during his long tenure at the top. Many GM managers felt a deep personal gratitude to him for his quiet but decisive acts of kindness, of help, of advice, or just warm sympathy when they were in trouble. At the same time, however, Sloan kept aloof from the entire management group in GM.
  “It is the duty of the Chief Executive Officer to be objective and impartial,” Sloan said, explaining his management style. “He must be absolutely tolerant and pay no attention to how a man does his work, let alone whether he likes a man or not. The only criteria must be performance and character. And that is incompatible with friendship and social relations. A Chief Executive Officer who has “friendships” within the company, has ‘social relations’ with colleagues, or discusses anything with them except the job, cannot remain impartial – or at least, which is equally damaging, he will not appear as such. Loneliness, distance, and formality may be contrary to his temperament – they have always been contrary to mine – but they are his duty.”

ACTION POINT: Focus on your employees’ performance and character, not on whether you like them.

Management Cases





2009.04.14 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Churchill the Leader チャーチルのリーダーシップ

What Churchill gave was moral authority, belief in values, and faith in the
rightness of rational action.

  The last reality of the thirties, which The End of Economic Man clearly conveys, is the total absence of leadership. The political stage was full of characters. Never before, it seems, had there been so many politicians, working so frenziedly. Quite a few of these politicians were decent men, some even very able ones. But excepting the twin Princes of Darkness, Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin, they were all pathetically small men; even mediocrities were conspicuous by their absence. “But,” today’s reader will protest, “there was Winston Churchill.” To be sure, Churchill’s emergence as the leader in Europe’s fight against the evil forces of totalitarianism was the crucial event. It was, to use a Churchillian phrase, “the hinge of fate.”
  Today’s reader is indeed likely to underrate Churchill’s importance. Until Churchill took over as leader of free peoples everywhere, after the retreat at Dunkirk and the fall of France, Hitler had moved with apparent infallibility. After Churchill, Hitler was “off” for good, never retaining his sense of timing or his uncanny ability to anticipate every opponent’s slightest move. The shrewd calculator of the thirties became the wild, uncontrolled plunger of the forties. It is hard to realize today, sixty-five years after the event, that without Churchill the United States might have resigned itself to Nazi domination of Europe. What Churchill gave was precisely what Europe needed: moral authority, belief in values, and faith in the rightness of rational action.

ACTION POINT: Record the key values that are operative in your organization. Compare these to values espoused by your leaders. Recommend steps to bring espoused values in line with operating values to produce the right action.

A Functioning Society





2009.04.13 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Fake Versus True Leaders 本物のリーダー

All one could do in 1939 was pray and hope.

  But this is hindsight. Winston Churchill appears in The End of Economic Man and is treated with great respect. Indeed, reading now what I then wrote, I suspect that I secretly hoped that Churchill would indeed emerge into leadership. I also never fell for the ersatz leaders to whom a good many well-informed contemporaries – a good many members of Franklin Roosevelt’s entourage in Washington, for instance – looked for deliverance. Yet in 1939 Churchill was a might-have-been: a powerless old man rapidly approaching seventy; a Cassandra who bored his listeners in spite (or perhaps because) of his impassioned rhetoric; a two-time loser who, however magnificent in opposition, had proven himself inadequate to the demands of office. I know that it is hard to believe today that even in 1940 Churchill was by no means the inevitable successor when the “Men of Munich” were swept out of office by the fall of France and the retreat at Dunkirk.
  Churchill’s emergence in 1940, more than a year after the book was first published, was the reassertion of the basic moral and political values for which The End of Economic Man had prayed and hoped. But all one could do in 1939 was pray and hope. The reality was the absence of leadership, the absence of affirmation, the absence of men and values and principle.

ACTION POINT: Face your own reality. What threats have you been avoiding? Put a plan in place today to solve these problems.

A Functioning Society





2009.04.12 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Four Competences of a Leader リーダーとしての4つ能力

Keep your eye on the task, not on yourself.
The task matters, and you are a servant.

  Most organizations need somebody who can lead regardless of the weather. What matters is that he or she works on the basic competencies. As the first such basic competence, I would put the willingness, ability, and self-discipline to listen. Listening is not a skill; it is a discipline. Anybody can do it. All you have to do is to keep your mouth shut. The second essential competence is the willingness to communicate, to make yourself understood. That requires infinite patience. The next important competence is not to alibi. Say: “This doesn’t work as well as it should. Let’s take it back and reengineer it.” The last basic competence is the willingness to realize how unimportant you are compared to the task. Leaders subordinate themselves to the task.
  When effective leaders have the capacity to maintain their personality and individuality, even though they are totally dedicated, the task will go on after them. They also have a human existence outside of the task. Otherwise they do things for personal aggrandizement, in the belief that this furthers the cause. They become self-centered and vain. And above all, they become jealous. One of the great strengths of Winston Churchill was that Churchill, to the very end, pushed and furthered young politicians.

ACTION POINT: Set aside ten minutes every Friday afternoon to give yourself a weekly report card on all four skills: listening, communicating, reengineering mistakes, and subordinating your ego the task at hand.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization





2009.04.11 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Crisis and Leadership リーダーシップと危機

Leadership is a foul-weather job.

  The most successful leader of the twentieth century was Winston Churchill. But for twelve years, from 1928 to Dunkirk in 1940, he was totally on the sidelines, almost discredited – because there was no need for a Churchill. Things were routine or, at any rate, looked routine. When the catastrophe came, thank goodness he was available. Fortunately or unfortunately, the one predictable thing in any organization is the crisis. That always comes. That’s when you do depend on the leader.
  The most important task of an organization’s leader is to anticipate crisis. Perhaps not to avert it, but to anticipate it. To wait until crisis hits is abdication. One has to make the organization capable of anticipating the storm, weathering it, and in fact, being ahead of it. You cannot prevent a major catastrophe, but you can build an organization that is battle-ready, that has high morale, that knows how to behave, that trusts itself, and where people trust one another. In military training, the first rule is to instill soldiers with trust in their officers, because without trust they won’t fight.

ACTION POINT: Confront the major problems facing your organization. Communicate their essence frankly and fully. Gather support for taking the steps necessary to solve them.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization





2009.04.10 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Absence of Integrity 真摯さの欠如

An executive should be a realist; and no one is less realistic than the cynic.

  Integrity may be difficult to define, but what constitutes lack of integrity is of such seriousness as to disqualify a person for a managerial position. A person should never be appointed to a managerial position if his vision focuses on people’s weakness rather than on their strengths. The person who always knows exactly what people cannot do, but never sees anything they can do, will undermine the sprit of her organization. An executive should be a realist; and no one is less realistic than the cynic.
  A person should not be appointed if that person is more interested in the question “Who is right?” than in the question “What is right?” To ask “Who is right?” encourages one’s subordinates to play it safe, if not to play politics. Above all, it encourages subordinates to “cover up” rather than to take corrective action as son as they find out that they have made a mistake. Management should not appoint a person who considers intelligence more important than integrity. It should never promote a person who has shown that he or she is afraid of strong subordinates. It should never put into a management job a person who does not set high standards for his or her own work.

ACTION POINT: Define integrity. Work on those attributes of integrity that you require in a new employee.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices





2009.04.09 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Leadership Is Responsibility リーダーシップは責任

Not enough generals were killed.

  All the effective leaders I have encountered – both those I worked with and those I merely watched – knew four simple things: a leader is someone who has followers; popularity is not leadership, results are; leaders are highly visible, they set examples; leadership is not rank, privilege, titles, or money, it is responsibility.
  When I was in my final high school years, our excellent history teacher – himself a badly wounded war veteran – told each of us to pick several of a whole spate of history books on World War I and write a major essay on our selections. When we then discussed these essays in class, one of my fellows students said, “Every one of these books says that the Great War was a war of total military incompetence. Why was it?” Our teacher did not hesitate a second but shot right back, “Because not enough generals were killed; they stayed way behind the lines and let others do the fighting and dying.” Effective leaders delegate, but they do not delegate the one thing that will set the standards. They do it.

ACTION POINT: Don’t expect to retain the respect of your employees if you completely delegate the central function of your enterprise, whether it’s healing patients or selling bonds.

The Effective Executive





2009.04.08 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Base Leadership on Strength 強みによるリーダーシップ

The distance between the leaders and the average is a constant.

  In human affairs, the distance between the leaders and the average is a constant. If leadership performance is high, the average will go up. The effective executive knows that it is easier to raise the performance of one leader than it is to raise the performance of a whole mass. She therefore makes sure that she puts into the leadership position, into the standard-setting, the performance-making position, the person who has the strength to do the outstanding, the pacesetting job. This always requires focus on the one strength of a person and dismissal of weaknesses as irrelevant unless they hamper the full deployment of the available strength.
  The task of an executive is not to change human beings. Rather, as the Bible tells us in the parable of the talents, the task is to multiply the performance capacity of the whole by putting to use whatever strength, whatever health, whatever aspiration there is in individuals.

ACTION POINT: To raise the performance of a business unit, put a strong leader at the helm.

The Effective Executive





2009.04.07 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Qualities of a Leader リーダーの条件

Leadership is the lifting of a man’s vision to higher sights.

  The leader who basically focuses on himself or herself is going to mislead. The three most charismatic leaders in this century inflicted more suffering on the human race than almost any other trio in history: Hitler, Stalin, and Mao. What matters is not the leader’s charisma. For leadership is not magnetic personally – that can just as well be demagoguery. It is not “making friends and influencing people” – that is flattery.
  Leadership is lifting of a man’s vision to higher sights, the raising of a man’s performance to a higher standard, the building of a man’s personality beyond its normal limitations. Nothing better prepares the ground for such leadership than a spirit of management that confirms in the day-to-day practices of the organization strict principles of conduct and responsibility, high standards of performance, and respect for the individual and his work.

ACTION POINT: Set strict principles of conduct and high standards of performance, and respect people and their work.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization
Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices





2009.04.06 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Picking a Leader リーダーの発掘

I always ask myself, would I want one of my sons to work under that person?

  What would I look for in picking a leader of an institution? First, I would look at what the candidates have done, what their strengths are. You can only perform with strength – and what have they done with it? Second, I would look at the institution and ask: “What is the one immediate key challenge?” I would try to match the strength with the needs.
  Then I would look for integrity. A leader sets an example, especially a strong leader. He or she is somebody on whom people, especially younger people, in the organization model themselves. Many years ago I learned from a very wise old man, who was the head of a very large, worldwide organization. He was in his late seventies, famous for putting the right people into the right enterprises, all over the globe. I asked him: “What do you look for?” And he said: “I always ask myself, would I want one of my sons to work under that person? If he is successful, then young people will imitate him. Would I want my son to look like this?” This, I think, is the ultimate question.

ACTION POINT: Next time you hire someone, ask yourself whether you would want your son or dangerous to work for him or her.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization





2009.04.05 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Organizations and Individuals 組織と人

The more the organization grows, the more the individual can grow.

  The more the individual in an organization grows as a person, the more the organization can accomplish – this is the insight underlying all our attention to manager development and advanced manager education today. The more the organization grows in seriousness and integrity, objectives and competence, the more scope there is for the individual to grow and to develop as a person.

ACTION POINT: Keep learning. Take full advantage of your company’s educational benefits.

Landmarks of Tomorrow





2009.04.04 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Spirit of Performance 組織の責任

The purpose of an organization is to enable common men
to do uncommon things.

Morality to have any meaning at all, must not be exhortation, sermon, or good intentions. It must be practices. Specifically:

  1. The focus of the organization must be on performance. The first requirement of the spirit of performance is high performance standards, for the group as well as for each individual.
  2. The focus of the organization must be on opportunities rather than on problems.
  3. The decisions that affect people – their placement, pay, promotion, demotion, and severance – must express the values and beliefs of the organization.
  4. Finally, in its people decisions, management must demonstrate that it realizes that integrity is one absolute requirement of any manager, the one quality that he has to bring with him and cannot be expected to acquire later on.

ACTION POINT: Focus on performance, opportunities, people, and integrity.

Managing: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices





2009.04.03 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Responsible Worker 働く者としての責任

The responsible worker has a personal commitment to getting results.

  But there also is the task of building and leading organizations in which every person sees herself as a “manager” and accepts the full burden of what is basically managerial responsibility: responsibility for her own job and work group, for her contribution to the performance and results of the entire organization, and for the social tasks of the work community.
  Responsibility, therefore, is both external and internal. Externally it implies accountability to some person or body and accountability for specific performance. Internally it implies commitment. The Responsible Worker is a worker who not only is accountable for specific results but also has authority to do whatever is necessary to produce these results and, finally, is committed to these results as a personal achievement.

ACTION POINT: Are you personally committed to getting results at work, or are you just going through the motions? Do you lack the authority to produce results? Either get it, or look for another job.

Managing: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices
(second paragraph from a letter to Jack Beatty; The World According to Peter Drucker)





2009.04.02 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Management as a Human Endeavor 体系としてのマネジメント

Management is about human beings.

  The modern enterprise is a human and social organization. Management as a discipline and as a practice deals with human and social values. To be sure, the organization exists for an end beyond itself. In the case of business enterprise, the end is economic; in the case of the hospital, it is the care of the patient and his or her recovery; in the case of the university, it is teaching, learning, and research. To achieve these ends, the peculiar modern invention we call management organizes human beings for joint performance and creates social organization. But only when management succeeds in making the human resources of the organization productive is it able to attain the desired outside objectives and results.
  Management is no more a science than is medicine: both are practices. A practice feeds from a large body of true sciences. Just as medicine feeds off biology, chemistry, physics, and a host of other natural sciences, so management feeds off economics, psychology, mathematics, political theory, history, and philosophy. But like medicine, management is also a discipline in its own right, with its own assumption, its own aims, its own tools, and its own performance goals and measurements.

ACTION POINT: Are you by background an engineer, economist, psychologist, mathematician, political scientist, historian, or philosopher? List three ways your background influences your approach to management.

The Frontiers of Management





2009.04.01 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

«  | HOME |  »



【スエルテ - SUERTE】

Author:【スエルテ - SUERTE】
ピーター・ドラッカー(P.F.ドラッカー、Peter Ferdinand Drucker)の鋭い洞察力および示唆に富んだ文章は我々を魅了します。
『The Daily Drucker(ドラッカー 365の金言)』を元に毎日解説していきます。