From Analysis to Perception 分析から知覚へ

In an ecology, the “whole” has to be seen and understood and the “parts”
exist only in contemplation of the whole.

  In the world of the mathematicians and philosophers, perception was “intuition” and either spurious or mystical, elusive, mysterious. Perception, the mechanical worldview asserts, is not “serious” but is relegated to the “finer things of life,” that is to things we can do without. In the biological universe, however, perception is at the center. And of course any “ecology” is perception rather than analysis. In an ecology, the “whole” has to be seen and understood and the “parts” exist only in contemplation of the whole. Three hundred years ago, Descartes said, “I think, therefore I am.” We will now have to say also, “I see therefore I am.”
  Indeed, the new realities with which this book deals are configurations and, as such, call for perception as much as analysis: the dynamic disequilibrium of the new pluralisms, for instance; the multinational and transnational economy and the transnational ecology; the new archetype of the “educated person” that is so badly needed.

ACTION POINT: What are the roles of both perception and analysis in the following statement about an organization?: “For what matters in any system is the performance of the whole; this is the result of growth and of dynamic balance, adjustment, and integration rather than of mere technical efficiency.”

The New Realities






2009.03.31 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Nature of Complex System 短期経済政策の無効

In respect to short-term phenomena, there is no system. There is only chaos.

  The fastest growing field of modern mathematics is the theory of complexity. It shows, with rigorous mathematical proof, that complex systems do not allow prediction; they are controlled by factors that are not statistically significant. This has become known as the “butterfly effect”: a whimsical but mathematically rigorous (and experimentally proven) theorem shows that a butterfly flapping its wings in the Amazon rain forest can and sometimes does control the weather in Chicago a few weeks or months later. In complex systems, the climate is predictable and has high stability; the “weather” is not predictable and is totally unstable. And no complex system can exclude anything as “external.” In respect to the weather, that is, in respect to short-term phenomena, there is no system. There is only chaos.
  Economics and economic policy deal with short-term phenomena. They deal with recessions and changes in prices. Contemporary economics and economic policy assume that the system, the long term, is made by short-term policies, for example, changes in interest rates, government spending, tax rates, and so on. For a complex system this is simply not true, as modern mathematics has now proven.

ACTION POINT: Identify the long-term phenomena affecting your organization. How will these affect your organization in both the short term and the long term?

The New Realities





2009.03.30 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Why Management Science Fails to Perform マネジメント・サイエンスの陥穽

Parts exist contemplation of the whole.

  There is one fundamental insight underlying all management science. It is that the business enterprise is a system of the highest order: a system whose parts are human beings contributing voluntarily of their knowledge, skill, and dedication to a joint venture. And one of thing characterizes all genuine systems, whether they be mechanical like the control of a missile, biological like a tree, ore social like the business enterprise: it is interdependence. The whole of a system is not necessarily improved if one particular function or part is improved or made more efficient. In fact, the system may well be damaged thereby, or even destroyed. In some cases the best way to strengthen the system may be to weaken a part – to make it less precise or less efficient. For what matters in any system is the performance of the whole; this is the result of growth and of dynamic balance, adjustment, and integration, rather than of mere technical efficiency.
  Primary emphasis on the efficiency of parts in management science is therefore bound to do damage. It is bound to optimize precision of the tool at the expense of the health and performance of the whole.

ACTION POINT: Determine what parts of your company, such as finance ore engineering, might be weakened to improve overall performance.

Landmarks of Tomorrow
Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices





2009.03.29 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Information for Strategy 戦略の基盤としての情報

The only profit center of a business is a customer
whose check hasn’t bounced.

  Strategy has to be based on information about markets, customers, and noncustomers, about technology in one’s own industry and others’, about worldwide finance, and about the changing world economy. For that is where the results are. Inside an organization there are only cost centers.
  Major changes always start outside an organization. A retailer may know a great deal about the people who shop at its stores. But no matter how successful, no retailer ever has more than a small fraction of the market as its customers; the great majority are noncustomers. It is always with noncustomers that basic changes begin and become significant. At least half of the important new technologies that have transformed an industry in the past fifty years came from outside the industry itself.

ACTION POINT: Set up a system for your organization to collect and organize relevant information on the environment, including information about markets, customers, noncustomers, and technology in and outside of your industry.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century





2009.03.28 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Command or Partner 管理から提携へ

The axiom that an enterprise should aim for
maximum integration is obsolete.

  The traditional axiom that an enterprise should aim for maximum integration is becoming obsolete in the new corporation. There are two explanations for the “disintegration” of the enterprise. First, knowledge has become increasingly specialized. Knowledge is therefore increasingly expensive, and also it is increasingly difficult to maintain enough critical mass for every major task within an enterprise. And because knowledge rapidly deteriorates unless it is used constantly, maintaining within an organization an activity that is used only intermittently guarantees incompetence.
  Second, by now the new information technologies – Internet and e-mail – have practically eliminated the physical costs of communication. This has meant that often the most productive and most profitable way to organize is to disintegrate and to partner. This is being extended to more and more activities. Outsourcing the management of an institution’s information technology, data processing, and computer system has become routine, for instance.

ACTION POINT: Think about whether you are about to be “disintegrated” out of a job by your employer outsourcing your function. Prepare a backup plan.

Managing in the Next Society
The Next Society (Corpedia Online Program)





2009.03.27 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Management of the Multinational グローバル企業への変身

The multinationals of 2025 are likely to be held together
and controlled by strategy.

  Statistically, multinational companies play much the same part in the world economy today as they did in 1913. But they have become very different animals. Multinationals in 1913 were domestic firms with subsidiaries abroad, each of them self-contained, in charge of a politically defined territory, and highly autonomous. Multinationals now tend to be organized globally along product or service lines. But like the multinationals of 1913, they are held together and controlled by ownership. By contrast, the multinationals of 2025 are likely to be held together and controlled by strategy. There will still be ownership, of course. But alliances, joint ventures, minority stakes, know-how agreements and contracts, will increasingly be the building blocks of a confederation.
  This kind of organization will need a new kind of top management. In most countries, and even in a good many large and complex companies, top management is still seen as an extension of operating management. Tomorrow’s top management, however, is likely to be a distinct and separate organ: it will stand for the company.

ACTION POINT: Is your expertise of your boss’s expertise in the nuts and bolts of operating a division or in knitting together a far-flung confederation of strategic partners? Do two things that will improve your personal attractiveness as a strategic partner, such as reading a book about another business or culture or talking to an executive who has partnering expertise.

Managing in the Next Society





2009.03.26 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

From Legal Fiction to Economic Reality 経済連鎖戦略の一般化

Where do activities belong?

  Increasingly, the economic process depends on structures built upon alliances, joint ventures, and outsourcing. Structures that are built upon strategy, rather than ownership and control, are becoming the models for growth in the global economy. Executives in these partnership structures should organize and manage corporate strategy, product planning, and product costing as one economic whole.
  Take for example, a leading global manufacturer of consumer goods. Formerly the company assumed that the more in-house manufacturing it did, the better. Now it is asking, “Where do activities belong?” So, it has decided to place finishing activities into many of the 180 countries where the customer is located. But it produces itself fundamental compounds for the products only in a few regions of the world. For example, a large plant in Ireland serves all of Europe and Africa. The company is in-sourcing the basic compounds to achieve quality control, but it is outsourcing final assembly. It is looking at the entire value chain and decides where to place various activities.

ACTION POINT: Think about your job. Could someone else do it cheaper and better? If so, develop a plan to get new skills to move up the food chain, by reading, doing research, and taking to people.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)





2009.03.25 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

E-Commerce: The Challenge eコマースからの挑戦

It is going to CANNIBALIZE our business.

  We don’t know yet which goods and services will turn out to be most suitable for e-commerce. But we do know that any success in selling through e-commerce, whether business-to-business or business-to-consumer is going to be seen as a threat by the traditional distribution channels, such as the supermarkets or the local offices of the brokerage houses. “It is going to CANNIBALIZE our business,” the traditional distributors will scream. Actually, if past experience is any guide, it may, in many cases, ADD traditional business and actually, increase their business and their profits. That’s very often the result of a new distribution channel.
  But we won’t know that for a good many years. Nor will we know for some years which goods and services will lend themselves to distribution through e-commerce. And there’s no point in trying to guess. So the decision to push e-commerce is a risky one. And yet, no business can risk NOT pushing e-commerce if there’s the slightest indication that it will become an important distribution channel for its goods and services, if not the most important one.

ACTION POINT: List the three main ways e-commerce has changed your distribution channels and the three ways it will change those channels in the next few years.

Managing in a Time of Great Change
The Five Deadly Business Sins (Corpedia Online Program)





2009.03.24 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Great Strength of E-Commerce eコマース革命

Selling is tied no longer to production but to distribution.

  E-commerce is to the information revolution what the railroad was to the industrial revolution. The railroad mastered distance – e-commerce eliminates it. The Internet provides the enterprise with the ability to link one activity to another and to make real-time data widely available, both within the company and to outside suppliers, outside channels of distribution, and customers. It strengthens the move to disintegrate the corporation.
  But, the great strength of e-commerce is that it provides the consumer with a whole range of products, no matter who makes them. Examples include Amazon.com and CarsDirect.com. E-commerce separates, for the first time, selling and producing. Selling is tied no longer to production but to distribution. There is absolutely no reason why any e-commerce facility should limit itself to marketing and selling one maker’s products or brands.

ACTION POINT: Is your business the equivalent of Amazon.com or the local bookstore? If the latter, determine how you can use e-commerce to fight back.

Managing in the Next Society
The Next Society (Corpedia Online Program)





2009.03.23 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Internet Technology and Education eラーニングの課題

The medium not only controls how things are communicated,
but what things are communicated.

  In the health care, information technology has already made a fabulous impact. In education, its impact will be greater. However, attempts to put ordinary college courses on the Internet are a mistake. Marshall McLuhan was correct. The medium controls not only how things are communicated, but what things are communicated. On the Web, you must do it differently.
  You must redesign everything. Firstly, you must hold students’ attention. Any good teacher has a radar system to get the class’s reaction, but you don’t have that online. Secondly, you must enable students to do what they can do in a college course, which is to go back and forth. So, online you must combine a book’s qualities with a course’s continuity and flow. Above all, you must put it in a context. In a college course, the college provides the context. In that online course you turn on at home, the course must provide the background, the context, the references.

ACTION POINT: Think about your organization’s online services, from Web-based learning to health benefits to compliance. Ask a few employees who use these service whether they are satisfied with them. Hint: Bring earplugs!

Managing in the Next Society





2009.03.22 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Beyond the Information Revolution IT革命の先

There is a service waiting to be born.

  The truly revolutionary impact of the information revolution is just beginning to be felt. But it is not “information” that fuels this impact. It is something that practically no one foresaw or even talked about fifteen or twenty years ago: e-commerce – that is, the explosive emergence of the Internet as a major, perhaps eventually the major, worldwide distribution channel for goods, for services, and, surprisingly, for managerial and professional jobs. This is profoundly changing economies, markets, and industry structures; products and services and their flow; consumer segmentation, consumer values, and consumer behavior; jobs and labor markets.
  New and unexpected industries will no doubt emerge, and fast. There is a service waiting to be born.

ACTION POINT: Fast-forward to 2015. What are three entirely new businesses that will emerge in your industry from technological developments that you can identify today?

Managing in the Next Society





2009.03.21 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

A Scorecard for Managers マネジメントの成績表

The things that the proponents of “management audits” talk about –
integrity and creativity, for instance - are better left to the novelist.

  The “bottom line” measures business performance rather than management performance. And the performance of a business today is largely a result of the performance of management in years past. Performance in management, therefore, means in large measure doing a good job of preparing today’s business for the future. The future of a business is largely formed by present-management performance in four areas:
  • Performance in appropriating capital: We need to measure the return on investment against the return expected.
  • Performance in people decisions: Neither what is expected of a person’s performance when he or she is put into the job, nor how the appointment works out, is “intangible.” Both can be fairly easily judged.
  • Performance in innovation: Research results can be appraised, and then projected backward on the promises and expectations at the time the research effort was started.
  • Strategies versus performance: Did the things that the strategy expected to happen take place? And were the goals set the right goals in light of actual developments? Have they been attained?

ACTION POINT: Perform a management audit of yourself and the people who report directly to you. The criteria should include whether you/they made good people decisions, whether you/they have had any innovative ideas, and whether your/their strategic expectations came to pass.

Managing in Turbulent Times





2009.03.20 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Defining Corporate Performance コーポレート・ガバナンスのあり方

Maximize the wealth-producing capacity of the enterprise.

  Ralf Cordiner, CEO of the General Electric Company from 1958 to 1963, asserted that top management in the large, publicly owned corporation was a “trustee.” Cordiner argued that senior executives were responsible for managing the enterprise “in the best-balanced interest of shareholders, customers, employees, suppliers, and plant community cities.” That is what we now call “stakeholders.” Cordiner’s answer still required a clear definition of results and of the meaning of “best” with respect to “balance.” We no longer need to theorize about how to define performance and results in the large enterprise. We have successful examples.
  Both the Germans and the Japanese have highly concentrated institutional ownership. How, then, do the institutional owners of German or Japanese industry define performance and results? Though they manage quite differently, they define them in the same way. Unlike Cordiner, they do not “balance” anything. They maximize. But they do not attempt to maximize shareholder value or the short-term interest of any one of the enterprise’s “stakeholders.” Rather, they maximize the wealth-producing capacity of the enterprise. It is this objective that integrates short-term and long-term results and that ties the operational dimensions of business performance – market standing, innovation, productivity, and people and their development – with financial needs and financial results. It is also this objective on which all the constituencies – whether shareholders, customers, or employees – depend for the satisfaction of their expectations and objectives.

ACTION POINT: Check the tradeoff your enterprise is making between long-term performance variables – market standing, innovation, productivity, and people development – and short-term profitability. Decide whether these tradeoffs are healthy for the enterprise.

A Functioning Society





2009.03.19 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Morality and Profits 利益の倫理性

Is there sufficient profit?

  Joseph Schumpeter’s “innovator,” with his “creative destruction,” is the only theory so far to explain why there is something we call “profit.” The classical economists very well knew that their theory did not give any rationale for profit. Indeed, in the equilibrium economics of a closed economic system, there is no place for profit, no justification for it, no explanation of it. If profit is, however, a genuine cost, and especially if profit is the only way to maintain jobs and to create new ones, then capitalism becomes again a moral system.
  The weakness on moral grounds of the profit incentive enabled Karl Marx at once to condemn the capitalist as wicked and immoral and assert “scientifically” that he serves no function. As soon, however, as one shifts from the axiom of an unchanging, self-contained, closed economy, what is called profit is no longer immoral. It becomes a moral imperative. Indeed the question then is no longer: “How can the economy be structured to minimize the bribe of the functionless surplus called profit that has to be handed over to the capitalist to keep the economy going?” The question in Schumpeter’s economics is always: “Is there sufficient profit?” Is there adequate capital formation to provide for the costs of the future, the costs of staying in business, the costs of “creative destruction”?

ACTION POINT: Check to see if you are earning enough profit to cover the cost of capital and provide for innovation. If not, what are you going to do about it?

The Ecological Vision





2009.03.18 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Purpose of Profit 利益の役割

Profit is the ultimate test of business performance.

  Profit serves three purposes. One is it measures the net effectiveness and soundness of a business’s efforts. Another is the “risk premium” that covers the costs of staying in business – replacement, obsolescence, market risk and uncertainty. Seen from this point of view, there is no such thing as “profit”; there are only “costs of being in business” and “costs of staying in business.” And the task of a business is to provide adequately for these “costs of staying in business” by earning an adequate profit. Finally, profit ensures the supply of future capital for innovation and expansion, either directly, by providing the means of self-financing out of retained earnings, or indirectly, through providing sufficient inducement for new outside capital in the form in which it is best suited to the enterprise’s objectives.

ACTION POINT: Decide to pull the plug on an unprofitable business if it is not covering the cost required to stay in business or providing enough capital for future growth.

The Practice of Management





2009.03.17 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Balancing Objectives and Measurements 利益以外の目標

The traditional theorem of the maximization of profit has to be discarded.

  To manage a business is to balance a variety of needs and goals. To emphasize only profit, misdirects managers to the point where they may endanger the survival of the business. To obtain profit today, they tend to undermine the future. They may push the most easily saleable product lines and slight those that are the market of tomorrow. They tend to short-change research, promotion, and other postponeable investments. Above all, they shy away from any capital expenditure that may increase the investment capital base against which profits are measured; and the result is dangerous obsolescing of equipment. In other words, they are directed into the worst practices of management.
  Objectives are needed in every area where performance and results directly and vitally affect the survival and prosperity of the business. There are eight areas in which performance and objectives have to be set: market standing, innovation, productivity, physical and financial resources, profitability, manager performance and development, worker performance and attitude, and public responsibility. Different key areas require different emphasis in different businesses – and different emphasis at different stages of the development of each business. But the area are the same, whatever the business, whatever the economic conditions, whatever the business’s size or stage of growth.

ACTION POINT: In addition to setting profit objectives, set objectives for your business in the following areas: market standing, innovation, productivity, physical and financial resources, profitability, manager performance and development, worker performance, and public responsibility.

The Practice of Management





2009.03.16 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Managing for the Short Term and Long Term 今日の利益と長期の成長力

John Maynard Keynes’s best-known saying is surely “In the long run we are all dead.” It is a total fallacy that, as Keynes implies, optimizing the short term creates the right long-term future.

  It is a value question whether a business should be run for short-term results or for “the long run.” Financial analysts believe that businesses can be run for both, simultaneously. Successful businessmen know better. To be sure, everyone has to produce short-term results. But in any conflict between short-term results and long-term growth, one company decides in favor of long-term growth, and another company decides such a conflict in favor of short-term results. Again, this is not primarily a disagreement on economics. It is fundamentally a value conflict regarding the function of a business and the responsibility of management.

ACTION POINT: Does your organization sacrifice the long-term wealth-producing capacity of the enterprise to produce short-term results? Discuss how you can break out of this trap and still produce short-term profits.

The Ecological Vision
Management Challenges for the 21st Century





2009.03.15 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Universal Entrepreneurial Disciplines 起業家的な4つのシステム

The entrepreneurial disciplines are not just desirable;
they are conditions for survival today.

  Every institution – and not only businesses – must build into its day-to-day management four entrepreneurial activities that run in parallel. One is organized abandonment of products, services, processes, markets, distribution channels, and so on that are no longer an optimal allocation of resources. Then any institution must organize for systematic, continuing improvement. Then it has to organize for systematic and continuous exploitation, especially of its successes. And finally, it has to organize systematic innovation, that is, create the different tomorrow that makes obsolete and, to a large extent, replaces even the most successful products of today in an organization. I emphasize that these disciplines are not just desirable; they are conditions for survival today.

ACTION POINT: Abandon what is about to be obsolete, develop a system to exploit your successes, and develop a systematic approach to innovation.

“Management’s New Paradigms,” Forbes
Management Challenges for the 21st Century
The Next Society (Corpedia Online Program)





2009.03.14 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Converting Strategic Plans to Action 仕事としてのプラン

The best plan is only good intentions unless it degenerates into work.

  The distinction that marks a plan capable of producing results is the commitment of key people to work on specific tasks. Unless such commitment is made, there are only promises and hopes, but no plan. A plan needs to be tested by asking managers, “Which of your best people have you put on this work today?” The manager who comes back (as most of them do) and says, “But I can’t spare my best people now. They have to finish what they are doing now before I can put them to work on tomorrow,” is simply admitting that he does not have a plan.
  Work implies accountability, a deadline, and finally, the measurement of results, that is, feedback from results on the work. What we measure and how we measure determine what will be considered relevant, and determine, thereby, not just what we see, but what we – and others – do.

ACTION POINT: Establish specific numerical criteria and goals to measure results. Set deadlines for yourself and your organization to achieve these results.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices





2009.03.13 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Purpose of a Business 企業の2つの機能

A business enterprise has two basic functions: marketing and innovation.

  If we want to know what a business is, we have to start with its purpose. And the purpose must lie outside the business itself. In fact, it must lie in society, since a business enterprise is an organ of society. There is only one valid definition of business purpose: to create a customer. The customer is the foundation of a business and keeps it in existence. He alone gives employment. And it is to supply the customer that society entrusts wealth-producing resources to the business enterprise.
  Because it is the purpose to create a customer, any business enterprise has two – and only two – basic functions: marketing and innovation. These are the entrepreneurial functions. Marketing is the distinguishing, the unique function of Business.

ACTION POINT: Find out what needs your customers want fulfilled today. Determine how well your products are meeting the needs of your customers.

The Practice of Management





2009.03.12 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Piloting Change 変化をパイロットする

Neither studies nor market research nor computer modeling is a substitute for the test of reality.

  Everything improved or new needs first to be tested on a small scale; that is, it needs to be piloted. The way to do this is to find somebody within the enterprise who really wants the new. Everything new gets into trouble. And then it needs a champion. It needs somebody who says, “I am going to make this succeed,” and who then goes to work on it. And this person needs to be somebody whom the organization respects. This need not even be somebody within the organization.
  Often a good way to pilot a new product or new service is to find a customer who really wants the new, and who is willing to work with the producer on making truly successful the new product or the new service. If the pilot test is successful – it finds the problems nobody anticipated but also finds the opportunities that nobody anticipated, whether in terms of design, of market, of service – the risk of change is usually quite small.

ACTION POINT: Make sure the best ideas in your organization have fierce advocates to see them through a test in the marketplace.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century





2009.03.11 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Searching for Change 機会としての変化の識別

A change is something people do; a fad is something people talk about.

  Entrepreneurs see changes as the norm and as healthy. Usually they do not bring about the change themselves. But – and this defines the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship – the entrepreneur always searches for change, responds to it, and exploits it as an opportunity.
  Look at every change, look out every window. And ask: “Could this be an opportunity?” “Is this new thing a genuine change or simply a fad?” The difference is very simple: A change is something people do, and a fad is something people talk about. An enormous amount talk is a fad. You must also ask yourself if these transitions, these changes, are an opportunity or a threat. If you start one by looking at change as threat, you will never innovate. Don’t dismiss something because this is not what you had planned. The unexpected is often the best source of innovation.

ACTION POINT: Take a half an hour to discuss with a colleague the changes sweeping your industry and identify the biggest genuine changes. Ignore the fads; figure out how to capitalize on the genuine changes.

Managing in the Next Society





2009.03.10 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Organize for Constant Change 中核たるべきイノベーション

Today’s certainties always become tomorrow’s absurdities.

  One thing is certain for developed countries – and probably for the entire world – we face long years of profound changes. An organization must be organized for constant change. It will no longer be possible to consider entrepreneurial innovation as lying outside of management or even as peripheral to management. Entrepreneurial innovation will have to become the very heart and core of management. The organization’s function is entrepreneurial, to put knowledge to work – on tools, products, and processes; on the design of work; on knowledge itself.
  Deliberate emphasis on innovation may be needed most where technological changes are least spectacular. Everyone in a pharmaceutical company knows that the company’s survival depends on its ability to replace three quarters of its products by entirely new ones every ten years. But how many people in an insurance company realize that the company’s growth – perhaps even its survival – depends on the development of new forms of insurance? The less spectacular or prominent technological change is in a business, the greater the danger that the whole organization will ossify, and the more important, therefore, is the emphasis on innovation.

ACTION POINT: Are you and your organization in danger of ossification? Decide how you and your organization can systematically innovate, and build this into your management process.

Managing in a Time of Great Change
The Practice of Management
The Ecological Vision
Management Challenges for the 21st Century





2009.03.09 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Turbulence: Threat or Opportunity? 乱気流時代の4つの心得

When it rains manna from heaven, some people put up an umbrella.
Others reach for a big spoon.

  The manager will have to look at her task and ask, “What must I do to be prepared for danger, for opportunities, and above all for change?” First, this is a time to make sure that your organization is lean and can move fast. So this is a time when one systematically abandons and sloughs off unjustifiable products and activities – and sees to it that the really important tasks are adequately supported. Second, she will have to work on the most expensive of resources – time – particularly in areas where it is people’s only resource, as it is for highly paid, important groups such as research workers, technical service staffs, and all managers. And one must set goals for productivity improvement. Third, managers must learn to manage growth and to distinguish among kids of growth. If productivity of your combined resources goes up with growth, it is highly growth. Fourth, the development of people will be far more crucial in the years ahead.

ACTION POINT: Get rid of unjustifiable products and activities, set goals to improve productivity, manage growth, and develop your people.

The “How to” Drucker
Managing in Turbulent Times





2009.03.08 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Creating a True Whole 部分の総計を超える全体

Create a true whole greater than the sum of its parts.

  A manager has the task of creating a true whole that is larger than the sum of its parts. One analogy is the task of the conductor of a symphony orchestra, though whose effort, vision, and leadership individual instrumental parts become the living whole of a musical performance. But the conductor has the composer’s score; he is only interpreter. The manager is both composer and conductor.
  The task of creating a genuine whole also requires that the manager, in every one of her acts, consider simultaneously the performance and results of the enterprise as a whole and the diverse activities needed to achieve synchronized performance. It is here, perhaps, that the comparison with the orchestra conductor fits best. A conductor must always hear both the whole orchestra and, say, the second oboe. Similarly, a manager must always consider both the overall performance of the enterprise and, say, the market-research activity needed. By raising the performance of the whole, she creates scope and challenge for market research. By improving the performance of market research, she makes possible better overall business results. The manager must simultaneously ask two double-barreled questions: “What better business performance is needed and what does this require of what activities?” And “What better performances are the activities capable of and what improvement in business results will they make possible?”

ACTION POINT: Have you composed your symphony? Has your boss composed his or hers? Have you begun rehearsals with your players yet? Can you hear the second oboe? Are you ready for Carnegie Hall?

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practice





2009.03.07 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Innovation and Risk Taking イノベーションのリスク

Successful innovators are conservative.

  I once attended a university symposium on entrepreneurship at which a number of psychologists spoke. Although their papers disagreed on everything else, they all talked about an “entrepreneurial personality,” which was characterized by a “propensity fro risk taking.” A well-known and successful innovator and entrepreneur who had built a process-based innovation into a substantial worldwide business in the space of twenty-five years was then asked to comment. He said: “I find myself baffled by your papers. I think I know as many successful innovators and entrepreneurs as anyone, beginning with myself. I have never come across an ‘entrepreneurial personality.’ The successful ones I know all have, however, one thing – and only one thing – in common: they are not ‘risk takers.’ They try to define the risks they have to take and to minimize them as much as possible. Otherwise none of us could have succeeded.
  This jibes with my own experience. I, too, know a good many successful entrepreneurs. Not one of them has a “propensity for risk taking.” Most successful innovators in real life are colorless figures, and much more likely to spend hours on cash-flow projections than to dash off looking for “risks.” They are not “risk-focused”; they are “opportunity-focused.”

ACTION POINT: Determine which of your ideas presents the least risk and the most opportunity and focus on them.

Innovation and Entrepreneurship





2009.03.06 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Managing for the Future 未来をつくる2つの方法

Prediction of future events is futile.

  The starting point to know the future is the realization that there are two different, though complementary, approaches:
  • Finding and exploiting the time lag between the appearance of a discontinuity in the economy and society and its full impact – one might call this anticipation of a future that has already happened.
  • Imposing on the yet unborn future a new idea that tries to give direction and shape to what is to come. This one might call making the future happen.
  The future that has already happened is not within the present business; it is outside: a change in society, knowledge, culture, industry, or economic structure. It is, moreover, a major trend, a break in the pattern rather than a variation within it. Looking for the future that has already happened and anticipating its impacts introduces new perception in the beholder. The need is to make oneself see it. What then could or should be done is usually not too difficult to discover. The opportunities are neither remote nor obscure. The pattern has to be recognized first.
  Predicting the future can only get you in trouble. The task is to manage what is there and to work to create what could and should be.

ACTION POINT: Spot a discontinuity in the economy or society that has appeared and presents an opportunity for your enterprise. Determine how long it will take for this change to impact the business. Develop a business plan to cash in on this insight.

Managing for Results





2009.03.05 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

In Innovation, Emphasize the Big Idea イノベーションの現実化

Innovative ideas are like frogs’ eggs: of a thousand hatched,
only one or two survive to maturity.

  The innovative organization understands that innovation starts with an idea. Ideas are somewhat like babies – they are born small, immature, and shapeless. They are promise rather than fulfillment. In the innovative organization executives do not say, “This is a damn-fool idea.” Instead they ask, “What would be needed to make this embryonic, half-baked, foolish idea into something that makes sense, that is feasible, that is an opportunity for us?”
  But an innovative organization also knows that the great majority of ideas will turn out not to make sense. Executives in innovative organizations therefore demand that people with ideas think through the work needed to turn an idea into a product, a process, a business, or a technology. They ask, “What work should we have to do and what would we have to find out and learn before we can commit the company to this idea of yours?” These executives know that it is as difficult and risky to convert a small idea into successful reality as it is to make a major innovation. They do not aim at “improvements” or “modifications” in products or technology. They aim at innovating a new business.

ACTION POINT: Make a list of your three best ideas. Then make a list of the key pieces of information you need to know and the major work that needs to be done before these ideas can blossom into a new business. Now pursue the best idea, or if none is practical, start again.

The Frontiers of Management





2009.03.04 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Knowledge External to the Enterprise 外部の変化を知れ

The technologies that are likely to have the greatest impact on a company
and an industry are technologies outside its own field.

  Many changes that have transformed enterprise have originated outside the specific industry of that enterprise. Here are three notable examples. The zipper was originally invented to close bales of heavy goods, such as grain, particularly in seaports. Nobody thought of using it for clothing. The clothing industry did not think it could replace buttons. And the inventor never dreamed it would be successful in the clothing industry.
  Commercial paper (that is, short-term notes originated by nonbank financial institutions) did not originate with banks, but had a tremendous negative impact on them. Under U.S. law, commercial paper is considered a security, which means that commercial banks cannot deal in it. Because financial services companies, such as Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, GE Capital, and so on, discovered this, they have largely replaced commercial banks as the world’s most important and leading financial institutions. Fiberglass cable, the invention that has revolutionized the telephone industry, did not come out of the great telephone research labs in the U.S., Japan, or Germany. It came, rather, from a glass company, Corning.

ACTION POINT: Identify at least one change that has originated outside your industry that either has transformed or has the potential to transform your enterprise. Look for ideas in other industries that can be used profitably in your industry.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century
From Data to Information Literacy (Corpedia Online Program)





2009.03.03 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Test of Innovation イノベーションの評価

Measure innovation by what they contribute to market and customer.

  The test of innovation is whether it creates value. Innovation means the creation of new value and new satisfaction for the customer. A novelty only creates amusement. Yet, again and again, managements decide to innovate far no other reason than that they are bored with doing the same thing or making the same product day in and day out. The test of an innovation, as well as the test of “quality,” is not “Do we like it?” It is “Do customers want it and will they pay for it?”
  Organizations measure innovations not by their scientific or technological importance but by what they contribute to market and customer. They consider social innovation to be as important as technological innovation. Installment selling may have had a greater impact on economics and markets that most of the great scientific advances in this century.

ACTION POINT: Identify innovations in your organization that are novelties versus those that are creating value. Did you launch the novelties because you were bored with doing the same thing? If so, make sure your next new product or service meets your customers’ needs.

The Frontiers of Management
Management Challenges for the 21st Century





2009.03.02 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

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【スエルテ - SUERTE】

Author:【スエルテ - SUERTE】
ピーター・ドラッカー(P.F.ドラッカー、Peter Ferdinand Drucker)の鋭い洞察力および示唆に富んだ文章は我々を魅了します。
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