Understanding What the Customer Buys 顧客にとっての価値

What does the customer consider value?

  The final question needed in order to come to grips with business purpose and business mission is: “What is value to the customer?” It may be the most important question. Yet it is the one least often asked. One reason is that managers are quite sure that they know the answer. Value is what they, in their business, define as quality. But this is almost always the wrong definition. The customer never buys a product. By definition the customer buys the satisfaction of a want. He buys value.
  For the teenage girl, for instance, value in a shoe is high fashion. It has to be “in.” Price is a secondary consideration and durability is not value at all. For the same girl as a young mother, a few years later, high fashion becomes a restraint. She will not buy something that is quite unfashionable. But what she looks for is durability, price, comfort and fit, and so on. The same shoe that represents the best buy for the teenager is a very poor value for her slightly older sister. What company’s different customers consider value is so complicated that it can be answered only by the customers themselves. Management should not even try to guess at the answers – it should always go to the customers in a systematic quest for them.

ACTION POINT: What do your customers consider most valuable about the product or service you provide? If you don’t know, find out. If you do know, ask your customers if you are delivering.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices






2009.02.28 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Defining Business Purpose and Mission: The Customer 顧客は誰か

What is the customer?

  “Who is the customer?” is the first and the crucial question in defining business purpose and business mission. It is not an easy, let alone an obvious question. How it is being answered determines, in large measure, how the business defines itself. The customer – that is, the ultimate user of a product of a service – is always a customer.
  Most businesses have at least two customers. Both have to buy if there is to be a sale. The manufactures of branded consumer goods always have two customers at the very least: the housewife and the grocer. It does not do much good to have the housewife eager to buy if the grocer does not stock the brand. Conversely, it does not do much good to have the grocer display merchandise advantageously and give it shelf space if the housewife does not buy. To satisfy only one of these customers without satisfying the other means that there is no performance.

ACTION POINT: Take one product or service that you are responsible for and determine how many kinds of customers you have for it. Then figure out if you are satisfying all of your different kinds of customers, or if you are ignoring some category(ies) of customers.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices





2009.02.28 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Defining Business Purpose and Mission 自らの事業を知る

What is our business?

  Nothing may seem simpler or more obvious than to know what a company’s business is. A steel mill makes steel; a railroad runs trains to carry freight and passengers; an insurance company underwrites fire risks; a bank lends money. Actually, “What is our business?” is almost always a difficult question and the right answer is usually anything but obvious.
  A business is not defined by the company’s name, statutes, or articles of incorporation. It is defined by the want the customer satisfies when she buys a product or a service. To satisfy the customer is the mission and purpose of every business. The question “What is our business?” can, therefore, be answered only by looking at the business from the outside, from the point of view of the customer and the market. What the customer sees, thinks, believes, and wants, at any given time, must be accepted by management as an objective fact and must be taken as seriously as the reports of the salesperson, the tests of the engineer, or the figures of the accountant. And management must make a conscious effort to get answer from the customer herself rather than attempt to read her mind.

ACTION POINT: Talk to one customer every day this week. Ask them how they see your company, what they think of it, what kind of company they believe it is and what they want from it. Use this feedback to better define your company’s mission.

Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices





2009.02.27 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Balancing Three Corporate Dimensions 企業の3つの側面

Shareholder sovereignty is bound to flounder. It is a fair-weather model.

  An important task for top management in the next society’s corporation will be to balance the three dimensions of the corporation: as an economic organization, as a human organization, and as an increasingly important social organization. Each of the three models of the corporation developed in the past half-century stressed one of these dimensions and subordinated the other two. The German model of the “social market economy” put the emphasis on the social dimension; the Japanese one, on the human dimension; and the American one, on the economic dimension.
  None of the three is adequate on its own. The German model achieved both economic success and social stability, but at the price of high unemployment and dangerous labor-market rigidity. The Japanese model was strikingly successful for many years, but faltered at the first serious challenge; indeed, it was a major obstacle to recovery from Japan’s recession of the 1990’s. Shareholder sovereignty is also bound to flounder. It is a fair-weather model that works well only in times of prosperity. Obviously the enterprise can fulfill its human and social functions only if it prospers as a business. But now that knowledge workers are becoming the key employees, a company also needs to be a desirable employer to be successful.

ACTION POINT: Audit your organization’s performance as an economic, human, and social entity. List five areas where it comes up short. Prepare a plan to correct these.

Managing in the Next Society





2009.02.26 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Governance of the Corporation 知識労働者と経済体制

What does capitalism mean when knowledge governs rather than money?

  Within a fairly short period of time, we will face the problem of the governance of corporations again. We will have to redefine the purpose of the employing organization and of its management, to satisfy both the legal owners, such as shareholders, and the owners of the human capital that gives the organization its wealth-producing power, that is, the knowledge workers. For increasingly the ability of organizations to survive will come to depend on their “comparative advantage” in making the knowledge worker productive. And the ability to attract and hold the best of the knowledge workers is the first and most fundamental precondition.
  What does capitalism mean when knowledge governs rather than money? And what do “free markets” mean when knowledge workers are the true assets? Knowledge workers can be neither bought nor sold. They do not come with a merger or an acquisition. It is certain that the emergence of the knowledge worker will bring about fundamental changes in the very structure and nature of the economic system.

ACTION POINT: What percentage of your workforce consists of people whose work requires advanced schooling? Tell these people you value their contributions and ask them to participate in decisions where their expertise is important. Make them feel like owners.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century





2009.02.25 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Legitimacy of the Corporation 企業内の権力の正統性

Unless the power in the corporation can be organized on an
accepted principle of legitimacy, it will disappear.

  No social power can endure unless it is legitimate power. And no society can function unless it integrates the individual member. Unless the members of the industrial system are given the social status and function that they lack today, our society will disintegrate. The masses will not revolt; they will sink into lethargy; they will flee the responsibility of freedom, which without social meaning is nothing but a threat and a burden. We have only two alternatives: either to build a functioning industrial society or to see freedom itself disappear in anarchy and tyranny.

ACTION POINT: Decide whether it is worthwhile to you and your company to operate in parts of the world that are tyrannies or in anarchy, or if it is just too dangerous.

The Future of Industrial Man





2009.02.24 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The New Tasks of Government 政府の課題

The new tasks will require a different from of government.

  The new tasks all will require more rather than less government. But they will require a different form of government. The greatest threat is damages to the human habitat. Second only to caring for the environment is the growing need for transnational action and institutions to abort the return of private armies and stamp out terrorism.
  Terrorism is all the more threatening as very small groups can effectively hold even large countries to ransom. A nuclear bomb can easily be put into a locker or a portal box in any major city and exploded by remote control; so could a bacterial bomb, containing enough anthrax spores to kill thousands of people and to contaminate a big city’s water supply, making it uninhabitable. What is needed to control the threat of terrorism is action that goes beyond any one sovereign state. The design of the necessary agencies is still ahead of us; so is the length of time it will take any of them to develop. It may well take major catastrophes to make national governments willing to accept subordination to such institutions and their decisions.

ACTION POINT: Get involved with industry-wide initiatives of importance to you and your company by partnering with multinational groups like the International Atomic Energy Agency, which frights nuclear terrorism.

Post-Capitalist Society





2009.02.23 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Pork-Barrel State ばらまき国家

Government becomes the master of civil society, able to mold and shape it.

  Until World War I, no government in history was ever able to obtain from its people more than a very small fraction of the country’s national income, perhaps 5 or 6 percent. As long as revenues were known to be limited, governments, whether democracies or absolute monarchies like that of the Russian czars, operated under extreme restraints. These restraints made it impossible for the government to act as either a social or an economic agency. But since World War I – and even more noticeably since World War II – the budgeting process has meant, in effect, saying yes to everything. Under the new dispensation, which assumes that there are no economic limits to the revenues it can obtain, government becomes the master of civil society, able to mold and shape it. Through the power of the purse, it can shape society in the politician’s image. Worst of all, the fiscal state has become a “pork-barrel state.”
  The pork-barrel state thus increasingly undermines the foundations of a free society. The elected representatives fleece their constituents to enrich special-interest groups and thereby to buy their votes. This is a denial of the concept of citizenship – and is beginning to be seen as such.

ACTION POINT: Draft a ballot petition for a balanced-budget amendment in your city including a limit to annual increases in property taxes, like Proposition 13 in California. Then go to city council meeting and evaluate expenditures against budget limitations.

Post-Capitalist Society





2009.02.22 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Failure of Central Planning 中央指令型経済の失敗

Any society in the era of the new technology would perish miserably
were it to run the economy by central planning.

  The new technology will greatly extend the management area; many people now considered rank-and-file will have to become capable of doing management work. And on all levels the demands on the manager’s responsibility and competence, her vision, her capacity to choose between alternate risks, her economic knowledge and skill, her ability to manage managers and to manage worker and work, her competence in making decisions, will be greatly increased.
  The new technology will demand the utmost in decentralization. Any society in the era of the new technology would perish miserably were it to attempt to get rid of free management of autonomous enterprise so as to run the economy by central planning. And so would any enterprise that attempted to centralize responsibility and decision making at the top. It would go under like the great reptiles of the saurian age who attempted to control a huge body by a small, centralized nervous system that could not adapt rapid change in the environment.

ACTION POINT: Do you micromanage your employees? Start empowering them by making sure they are trained properly to do their jobs, and then give them responsibility to do it. Provide room for failure.

The Practice of Management





2009.02.21 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Management and Economic Development 経済発展の原因

It can be said that there are no “underdeveloped countries.”
There are only “undermanaged” ones.

  Management creates economic and social development. Economic and social development is the result of management. It can be said, without too much oversimplification, that there are no “underdeveloped countries.” There are only “undermanaged” ones. Japan a hundred and forty years ago was an underdeveloped country by every material measurement. But it very quickly produced management of great competence, indeed, of excellence.
  This means that management is the prime mover and that development is a consequence. All our experience in economic development proves this. Wherever we have only capital, we have not achieved development. In the few cases where we have been able to generate management energies, we have generated rapid development. Development, in other words, is a matter of human energies rather than of economic wealth. And the generation and direction of human energies is the task of management.

ACTION POINT: What impact does your company have in the developing world? Are your activities there raising the managerial standards of local companies?

The Ecological Vision





2009.02.20 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Reprivatization 再民間化の必要

The strongest argument for private enterprise is the function of loss.

  Reprivatization is a systematic policy of using the other, nongovernmental institutions of the society of organizations for the actual “doing,” that is, the performance, operation, execution of tasks that flowed to government because the original private institution of society, the family, could not discharge them. What makes business especially appropriate for reprivatization is that, of all social institutions, it is predominately an organ of innovation. All other institutions were originally created to prevent, or at least to slow down, change. They become innovators only by necessity and most reluctantly.
  Business has two advantages where government has a major weakness. Business can abandon an activity. Indeed, it is forced to do so if it operates in a market. What’s more: of all institutions, business is the only one society will let disappear. The second strength of business: alone among all institutions, it has the test of performance. The consumer always asks: “And what will the product do for me tomorrow?” If the answer is “nothing,” he will see its manufacturer disappear without the slightest regret. And so will the investor. The strongest argument for “private enterprise” is not the function of profit. The strongest argument is the function of loss. Because of it business is the most adaptable and the most flexible of the institutions around.

ACTION POINT: First prisons, now wars are being manned by private companies. Make a list of which sectors will privatize next and determine how you can benefit.

The Age of Discontinuity





2009.02.19 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Reinventing Government 政府の再建

Government has to regain a modicum of performance capacity.

  Governments have become powerless against the onslaught of special-interest groups, have, indeed, become powerless to govern – to make decisions and to enforce them. The new tasks – protection of the environment, stamping out private armies and international terrorism, making arms control effective – all will require more rather than less government. But they will require a different form of government.
  Government has to regain a modicum of performance capacity. It has to be turned around. To turn around any institution – whether a business, a labor union, a university, a hospital, or a government – always requires the same three steps:
1. Abandonment of the things that do no work, the things that have never worked, the things that have outlived their usefulness and their capacity to contribute.
2. Concentration on the things that do work, the things that produce results, the things that improve the organization’s ability to perform.
3. Analysis of the half-successes, the half-failures.
A turnaround requires abandoning whatever does not perform and doing more of what does perform.

ACTION POINT: Can your business profit from government incompetence much like FedEx and UPS have profited from the shortcomings of the U.S. Postal Service? If you work for government, improve your effectiveness by concentrating on what works.

Post-Capitalist Society





2009.02.18 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Social Purpose for Society 自由で機能する社会

The absence of a basic social purpose for industrial society constitutes
the core of our problem.

  We already have given up the belief that economic progress is always and by necessity the highest goal. And once we have given up economic achievement as the highest value and have come to regard it as no more than one goal among many, we have, in effect, given up economic activity as the basis for social life. The abandonment of the economic as the socially constructive sphere has gone further. Western society has given up the belief that man is fundamentally Economic Man, that his motives are economic motives, and that his fulfillment lies in economic success and economic rewards.
  We have to develop a free and functioning society on the basis of a new concept of man’s nature and of the purpose and fulfillment of society. A basic ethical concept of social life must be developed. It lies in the philosophical ore metaphysical field.

ACTION POINT: Define an organizational purpose that goes beyond next-quarter financial results and goes beyond maximization of shareholder wealth. Define a purpose that employees can believe in and challenges them to contribute their best work.

The Future of Industrial Man





2009.02.17 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Need for a Harmony of Interests 社会の目的への貢献

The demand for harmony does not mean that society should abandon its
right to limit the exercise of economic power on the part of the corporation.

  Economic purpose does not mean that the corporation should be free from social obligations. On the contrary it should be so organized as to fulfill, automatically, its social obligations in the very act of seeking its own self-interest. An individual society based on the corporation can function only if the corporation contributes to social stability and to the achievement of social aims independent of the goodwill or the social consciousness of individual corporation managements.
  At the same time, the demand for harmony does not mean that society should abandon its needs and aims and its right to limit the exercise of economic power on the part on the part of the corporation. On the contrary, it is a vital function of rulership to set the frame within which institutions and individual act. But, society must be organized so that there is not temptation to enact, in the name of social stability or social beliefs, measures that are inimical to the survival and stability of its representative institutions.

ACTION POINT: Until early in 2004 many well-known mutual funds permitted large customers to trade funds after the close of business, which gave these large customers the advantage of knowing the sell price at the time of sale, a benefit unavailable to the common shareholder. Send an e-mail to the chairman of a mutual fund in which you own shares and ask for proof that you were not harmed by this practice.

Concept of the Corporation





2009.02.16 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Salvation by Society 社会による救済の終わり

The end of the belief in salvation by society may even
lead to a return to individual responsibility.

  Surely the collapse of Marxism as creed signifies the end of the belief in salvation by society. What will emerge next, we cannot know; we can only hope and pray. Perhaps nothing beyond stoic resignation? Perhaps a rebirth of traditional religion addressing itself to the needs and challenges of the person in the knowledge society? The explosive growth of what I call “pastoral” Christian churches in America – Protestant, Catholic, nondenominational – might be a portent. But so might the resurgence of fundamentalist Islam. For the young people in the Muslim world who now so fervently embrace Islamic fundamentalism would, forty years ago, have been equally fervent Marxists. Or will there be new religions? Still, redemption, self-renewal, spiritual growth, goodness, and virtue – the “New Man,” to use the traditional term – are likely to be seen again existential rather than social goals or political prescriptions. The end of the belief in salvation by society surely marks an inward turning. It makes possible renewed emphasis on the individual, the person. It may even lead – at least we can so hope – to a return to individual responsibility.

ACTION POINT: The human resources department is not responsible for taking care of you; you are. Know what you are good at, make sure your results are equal to your expectations, and manage yourself. Continually ask yourself, “What should MY contribution be?”

Post-Capitalist Society





2009.02.15 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Demands on Political Leadership カリスマ待望は集団自殺願望

Beware charisma.

  Charisma is “hot” today. There is an enormous amount of talk about it, and an enormous number of books are written on the charismatic leader. But, the desire for charisma is a political death wish. No century has seen more leaders with more charisma than the twentieth century, and never have political leaders done greater damage than the four giant leaders of the twentieth century: Stalin, Mussolini, Hitler, and Mao. What matters is not charisma. What matters is whether the leader leads in the right direction or misleads. The constructive achievements of the twentieth century were the work of completely uncharismatic people. The two military men who guided the Allies to victory in World War II were Dwight Eisenhower and George Marshall. Both were highly disciplined, highly competent, and deadly dull.
  Perhaps the greatest cause for hope, for optimism is that to the new majority, the knowledge workers, the old politics make no sense at all. But proven competence does.

ACTION POINT: Seek out the most competent people in your organization, not necessarily those with the most charisma.

The New Realities





2009.02.14 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Nature of Freedom 自由の本質

Freedom is never a release and always a responsibility.

  Freedom is not fun. It is not the same as individual happiness, nor is it security or peace or progress. It is a responsible choice. Freedom is not so much a right as a duty. Real freedom is not freedom from something; that would be license. It is freedom to choose between doing or not doing something, to act one way or another, to hold one belief or the opposite. It is not “fun” but the heaviest burden laid on man: to decide his own individual conduct as well as the conduct of society and to be responsible for both decisions.

ACTION POINT: List specific goals for your work. Think of goals that will meet your need for personal fulfillment, while also helping your boss meet his or her performance objectives. Sell these goals to your boss and keep the boss informed on your progress.

“The Freedom of Industrial Man,” The Virginia Quarterly Review





2009.02.13 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Role of the Bystander 傍観者の役割

…the bystander sees things neither actor nor audience notices.

  Bystanders have no history of their own. They are on the stage but are not part of the action. They are not even audience. The fortunes of the play and every actor in it depend on the audience, whereas the reaction of the bystander has no effect except on himself. But standing in the wings – much like the fireman in the theater – the bystander sees things neither actor nor audience notices. Above all, he sees differently from the way actors or audience see. By standers reflect, and reflection is a prism rather than a mirror; it refracts.
  To watch and think for yourself is highly commendable. But “to shock people by shouting strange views from the rooftops is not.” The admonition is well taken. But I have rarely heeded it.

ACTION POINT: Be a bystander to figure out what has to be done in your organization. Then act, but know you are running the risk of shocking people.

Adventures of a Bystander





2009.02.12 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Human Factor in Management マネジメントの人間的側面

Management is about human beings.

  The task of management is to make people capable of joint performance, to make their strengths effective and their weakness irrelevant. This is what organization is all about, and it is the reason that management is the critical, determining factor.
  Management must be built on communications and on individual responsibility. All members need to think through what they aim to accomplish – and make sure their associates know and understand that aim. All have to think through what they owe to others – and make sure that others understand. All have to think through what they, in turn, need from others – and make sure others know what is expected of them.
  Management must enable the enterprise and each of its members to grow and to develop as needs and opportunities change.

ACTION POINT: Are you a great actor in a terrible play? What are you going to do about it?

The New Realities





2009.02.11 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Modern Organization Must Be a Destabilizer 不安定要因たるべき現代組織

Only a society in dynamic disequilibrium has stability and cohesion.

  Society, community, and family are all conserving institutions. They try to maintain stability and to prevent, or at least to slow, change. And yet we also know that theories, values, and all the artifacts of human minds do age and rigidify, becoming obsolete, becoming afflictions.
  Yet “revolutions” every generation, as was recommended by Thomas Jefferson, are not the solution. We know that “revolution” is not achievement and the new dawn. It results from senile decay, from the bankruptcy of ideas and institutions, from a failure of self-renewal. The only way in which an institution – whether a government, a university, a business, a labor union, an army – can maintain continuity is by building systematic, organized innovation into its very structure. Institutions, systems, policies, eventually outlive themselves, as do products, processes, and services. They do it when they accomplish their objectives, and they do it when they fail to accomplish their objectives. Innovation and entrepreneurship are thus needed in society as much as in the economy, in public service institutions as much as in business. The modern organization must be a destabilizer; it must be organized for innovation.

ACTION POINT: When is the last time you created or helped create a new product or service? Were you just copying a competitor, or did you actually hatch a fresh idea? Try again.

Managing in a Time of Great Change
The Ecological Vision
Innovation and Entrepreneurship





2009.02.10 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Organizations Destabilize Communities 組織とコミュニティ

In its culture, the organization always transcends the community.

  Modern organizations have to operate in community. Their results are in the community. Yet the organization cannot submerge itself in the community or subordinate itself to that community. Its “culture” has to transcend community. Companies on which local communities depend for employment close their factories or replacing grizzled model-makers who have spent years learning their craft with twenty-five-year-old “whiz kids” who know computer simulation. Every one of such changes upsets the community. Every one is perceived as “unfair.” Every one destabilizes.
  It is the nature of the task that determines the culture of an organization, rather than the community in which that task is being performed. Each organization’s value system is determined by its task. Every hospital, every school, every business, has to believe that what it is doing is an essential contribution on which all the others in the community depend in the last analysis. To perform its task successfully, it has to be organized and managed the same way. If an organization’s culture clashes with the values of its community, the organization’s culture will prevail – or else the organization will not be able to make its social contribution.

ACTION POINT: If Wal-Mart wishes to move into your neighborhood against the wished of the neighborhood, what actions should Wal-Mart take? Under what conditions would it be wise for it to withdraw its move?

Post-Capitalist Society





2009.02.09 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Balance Continuity and Change 変革と継続の両立

Precisely because change is a constant,
the foundations have to be extra strong.

  The more an institution is organized to be a change leader, the more it will need to establish continuity internally and externally, the more it will need to balance rapid change and continuity. One way is to make partnership in change the basis of continuing relationships. Balancing change and continuity requires continuous work on information. Nothing disrupts continuity and corrupts relationships more than poor or unreliable information. It has to become routine for any enterprise to ask at any change, even the most minor one: “Who needs to be informed of this?” And this will become more and more important as more enterprise come to rely on people working together without actually working together – that is, on people using the new technologies of information. Above all, there is need for continuity in respect to the fundamentals of the enterprise: its mission, its values, its definition of performance and results.
  Finally, the balance between change and continuity has to be built into compensation, recognition, and rewards. We will have to learn, similarly, that an organization will have to reward continuity – for instance, by considering people who deliver continuing improvement to be as valuable to the organization, and as deserving of recognition and reward, as the genuine innovator.

ACTION POINT: When you make a decision or a change, ask yourself, “Who needs to be informed of this?”

Management Challenges for the 21st Century





2009.02.08 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Educated Person 教育があることの意味

The educated person needs to bring knowledge to bear on the present,
not to mention molding the future.

  In his 1943 novel, published in English as Magister Ludi (1949), Hermann Hesse anticipated the sort of world the humanists want – and its failure. The book depicts a brotherhood of intellectuals, artists, and humanists who live a life of splendid isolation, dedicated to the Great Tradition, its wisdom and its beauty. But the hero, the most accomplished Master of the Brotherhood, decides in the end of return to the polluted, vulgar, turbulent, strife-torn, moneygrubbing reality – for his values are only fool’s gold unless they have relevance to the world.
  Postcapitalist society needs the educated person even more than any earlier society did, and access to the great heritage of the past will have to be an essential element. But liberal education must enable the person to understand reality and master it.

ACTION POINT: Read a book on politics, history, or anything that interests you. What did you learn? How can you put that knowledge to work?

Post-Capitalist Society





2009.02.07 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Transnational Company 企業のグローバル化

Successful transnational companies see themselves as separate,
nonnational entities.

  Most companies doing international business today are still organized as traditional multinationals. But the transformation into transnational companies has begun, and it is moving fast. The products or services may be the same, but the structure is fundamentally different. In a transnational company there is only one economic unit, the world. Selling, servicing, public relations, and legal affairs are local. But parts, machines, planning, research, finance, marketing, pricing, and management are conducted in contemplation of the world market. One of America’s leading engineering companies, for instance, makes one critical part of all its forty-three plants worldwide in one location outside of Antwerp, Belgium – and nothing else. It has organized product development for the entire world in three places and quality control in four. For this company, national boundaries have largely become irrelevant.
  The transnational company is not totally beyond the control of national governments. It must adapt to them. But these adaptations are exceptions to policies and practices decided on for worldwide markets and technologies. Successful transnational companies see themselves as separate, nonnational entities. This self-perception is evidenced by something unthinkable a few decades ago: a transnational top management.

ACTION POINT: Ask the foreign technical-support center for your U.S.-purchased computer or printer a question about the operation of your equipment. How does the quality of this support compare with that of your local cable company?

“The Global Economy and the Nation-State,” Foreign Affairs, 75th Anniversary Edition





2009.02.06 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Shrinking of the Younger Population 若年人口の減少

The next society will be with us shortly.

  In the developed countries, the dominant factor in the next society will be something to which most people are only just beginning to pay attention: the rapid growth of the older population and the rapid shrinking of the younger generation. The shrinking of the younger population will cause an even greater upheaval than the growing number of older people, if only because nothing like this has happened since the dying centuries of the Roman Empire. In every single developed country, but also in China and Brazil, the birth rate is now well below the replacement rate of 2.2 live births per woman of reproductive age. Politically, this means that immigration will become an important – and highly divisive – issue in all rich countries. It will cut across all traditional political alignments.
  Economically, the decline in the younger population will change markets in fundamental ways. Growth in family formation has been the driving force of all domestic markets in the developed world, but the rate of family formation is certain to fall steadily unless bolstered by large-scale immigration of younger people.

ACTION POINT: Determine whether your organization is betting on young people, older people, or immigrants. Make sure you have a plan for the gradual decrease in the youth market and the increase in newcomers and the aged.

Managing in the Next Society





2009.02.05 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Knowledge and Technology 手段としての知識

The new technology embraces and feeds off the entire
array of human knowledges.

  The search for knowledge, as well as the teaching thereof, has traditionally been dissociated from application. Both have been organized by subject, that is, according to what appeared to be the logic of knowledge itself. The faculties and departments of the university, its degrees, its specializations, indeed the entire organization of higher learning, have been subject-focused. They have been, to use the language of the experts on organization, based upon “product,” rather than on “market” or “end use.” Now we are increasingly organizing knowledge and the search for it around areas of application rather than around the subject areas of disciplines, interdisciplinary work has grown everywhere.
  This is a symptom of the shift in the meaning of knowledge from an end in itself to a resource, that is, a means to some result. Knowledge as the central energy of a modern society exists altogether in application and when it is put to work. Work, however, cannot be defined in terms of the disciplines. End results are interdisciplinary of necessity.

ACTION POINT: List results for which you are responsible. What specialists are you dependent on to get these results? How can you improve coordination among these specialists?

The Age of Discontinuity





2009.02.04 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

The Management Revolution マネジメント革命

What matters is the productivity of nonmanual workers.

  In 1881, an American, Frederick Winslow Taylor(1856-1915), first applied knowledge to the study of work, the analysis of work, and the engineering of work. This led to the productivity revolution. The productivity Revolution has become a victim of its own success. From now on, what matters is the productivity of nonmanual workers. And that requires applying knowledge to knowledge.
  But knowledge is now also being applied systematically and purposefully to define what new knowledge is needed, whether it is feasible, and what has to be done to make knowledge effective. It is being applied, in other words, to systematic innovation. This third change in the dynamics of knowledge can be called the Management Revolution. Supplying knowledge to find out how existing knowledge can best be applied to produce results is, in effect, what we mean by management.

ACTION POINT: What results are you being paid to achieve? List three tasks that you should eliminate to be productive.

Post-Capitalist Society





2009.02.03 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Face Reality 新しい現実

Exploit the new realities.

  Today’s new realities fit neither the assumptions of the Left nor those of the Right. They don’t mesh at all with “what everybody knows.” They differ even more from what everybody, regardless of political persuasion, still believes reality to be. “What is” differs totally from what both the Right and the Left believe “ought to be.” The greatest and most dangerous turbulence today results from the collisions between the delusions of the decision makers – whether in governments, in the top managements of businesses, or in union leadership – and the realities.
  But a time of turbulence is also one of great opportunity for those who can understand, accept, and exploit the new realities. One constant theme is therefore, the need for the decision maker in the individual enterprise to face up to reality and resist the temptation of what “everybody knows,” the temptations of the certainties of yesterday, which are about to become the deleterious superstitions of tomorrow. To manage in turbulent times, therefore, means to face up to the new realities. It means starting with the question: “What is the world really like?” rather than with the assertions and assumptions that made sense only a few years ago.

ACTION POINT: List three new opportunities created by demographic shifts – changes in the composition of the population and workforce – and the shift from national to regional to transnational economies. Pursue them.

Managing in Turbulent Times





2009.02.02 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

Crossing the Divide 歴史の峠

Crossing the divide into the new realities.

  Every few hundred years there occurs a sharp transformation. We cross a “divide.” Within a few short decades, society rearranges itself – its worldview, its basic values, its social and political structure, its arts, its key institutions. Fifty years later, there is a new world. The people born after the transformation cannot even imagine the world in which their grandparents lived and into which their own parents were born.
  But today’s fundamental changes, these new realities visible thirty years ago, are actually only beginning and just about to have their full impacts. They underlie the worldwide restructuring of businesses, large and small – mergers, divestitures, alliances. They underlie the worldwide restructuring of the workforce – which, while largely an accomplished fact in the U.S., is still in its early stages in Japan and Europe. And they underlie the need for fundamental innovation in education and especially in higher education. These realities are different from the issues on which politicians, economists, scholars, businessmen, and union leaders still fix their attention, still write books, still make speeches.

ACTION POINT: Next time you hear colleagues pounding the table for something that is clearly yesterday’s news, find a way to tell them they need to wake up and smell the coffee.

The New Realities
Post-Capitalist Society
The Age of Discontinuity





2009.02.01 | Trackback(0) | Drucker ドラッカー

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【スエルテ - SUERTE】

Author:【スエルテ - SUERTE】
ピーター・ドラッカー(P.F.ドラッカー、Peter Ferdinand Drucker)の鋭い洞察力および示唆に富んだ文章は我々を魅了します。
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